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Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. China has a high burden of TB and accounted for almost 13% of the world's cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Spinal TB is one reason for the resurgence of TB in China. Few large case studies of MDR spinal TB in China have been conducted. The aim of this research was to observe the epidemiological characteristics of inpatients with MDR spinal TB in six provinces and cities of China from 1999–2015. This is a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients' information was collected from the control disease centre and infectious disease database of hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. A total of 3137 patients with spinal TB and 272 patients with MDR spinal TB were analysed. The result showed that MDR spinal TB remains a public health concern and commonly affects patients 15–30 years of age (34.19%). The most common lesions involved the thoracolumbar spine (35.66%). Local pain was the most common symptom (98.53%). Logistic analysis showed that for spinal TB patients, reside in rural district (OR 1.79), advanced in years (OR 1.92) and high education degree (OR 2.22) were independent risk factors for the development of MDR spinal TB. Women were associated with a lower risk of MDR spinal TB (OR 0.48). The most common first-line and second-line resistant drug was isoniazid (68.75%) and levofloxacin (29.04%), respectively. The use of molecular diagnosis resulted in noteworthy clinical advances, including earlier initiation of MDR spinal TB treatment, improved infection control and better clinical outcome. Chemotherapy and surgery can yield satisfactory outcomes with timely diagnosis and long-term treatment. These results enable a better understanding of the MDR spinal TB in China among the general public.
Only with the completion of the life cycles of Fasciola hepatica in 1883 and 30 years later those of Schistosoma japonicum (1913), Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni (1915) did research on schistosomiasis really get underway. One of the first papers by Cawston in 1918, describing attempts to establish the means of transmission of S. haematobium in Natal, South Africa, forms the historical perspective against which to judge where we are now. Molecular biology techniques have produced a much better definition of the complexity of the schistosome species and their snail hosts, but also revealed the extent of hybridization between human and animal schistosomes that may impact on parasite adaptability. While diagnostics have greatly improved, the ability to detect single worm pair infections routinely, still falls short of its goal. The introduction of praziquantel ~1982 has revolutionized the treatment of infected individuals and led directly to the mass drug administration programmes. In turn, the severe pathological consequences of high worm burdens have been minimized, and for S. haematobium infections the incidence of associated squamous cell carcinoma has been reduced. In comparison, the development of effective vaccines has yet to come to fruition. The elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from Japan shows what is possible, using multiple lines of approach, but the clear and present danger is that the whole edifice of schistosome control is balanced on the monotherapy of praziquantel, and the development of drug resistance could topple that.
Despite numerous global health initiatives after World War II, tuberculosis still poses a major threat in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines one attempt to tackle this problem: the Somalia-Finland Tuberculosis Control Project. Conducted in the 1980s as a bilateral development aid project between the two countries, it became the most extensive – and expensive – tuberculosis initiative in Somalia in that decade. An interesting feature of the project is that, despite a lack of previous experience in tuberculosis work in developing countries, the Finnish partner decided not to follow the WHO global guidelines designed to standardise tuberculosis activities across the developing world. Instead, Finns established their own treatment programme based on X-ray and short-course chemotherapy – otherwise rarely used in clinical practice in Africa. Through a close reading and comparison of the correspondence, project plans, memos and minutes, the article analyses the formation of this strategy. Focusing on ground-level decision-making, it argues that the decisions were based not only on a belief in the superior clinical effectiveness of these methods, but also on the fact that they better suited Finnish ambitions and project logic. Thus, the article supports the notion that donor perspectives on resources and project objectives determined what was seen as feasible treatment in a developing country. By shedding light on the debate between the supporters of short-course chemotherapy and the WHO standard treatment strategy, it also contributes to the early history of DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course).
The present study investigated the association between eating frequency (EF), diet quality and nutritional status of fifty-five women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT), with three follow-ups, before the first cycle (T0), after the intermediate cycle (T1) and after the last cycle of CT (T2). Dietary data were obtained by nine 24-h dietary recalls (24HR), and the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R) was used for qualitative analysis of diet. The average EF was established by adding the number of daily eating episodes in the three 24HR of each time. Anthropometric variables were obtained at three times. Women who reported higher EF (equal to or above median value (T0 and T1: 4·67; T2: 4·33 eating episodes)) presented better anthropometric parameters, in T0 and T1, as well as higher scores for BHEI-R specific groups and BHEI-R Total score in T1 and T2. In generalised linear models, the continuous variable EF was negatively associated with all the anthropometric variables in T0 and with the waist:height ratio in T1. There were positive associations for the BHEI-R groups at the three times: Total Fruit; Whole Fruit; Total Vegetables; Dark Green and Orange Vegetables and Legumes. At T1 and T2 the EF was positively associated with the BHEI-R Total score, and also with Whole Grains in T1. The results suggest that a higher EF was associated with a better diet quality during CT in women with BC. In contrast, an inverse association was observed between EF and anthropometric parameters before the first cycle of treatment.
The present study examined the extent to which social support (SS) availability and satisfaction could predict the extent of caregiver burden (CB) among mothers of children with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL).
The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive-correlative study. It was conducted on a sample of 117 mothers whose children were undergoing treatment in a public hospital in Bam, Iran. The Norbeck Social Support Scale and the Caregiver Burden Scale were used to measuring study variables. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlations, t-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regressions.
Significant correlations were observed between CB and SS availability (r = −0.499, p < 0.001), SS satisfaction (r = −0.543, p < 0.001), the age of the child with cancer (r = −0.22, p = 0.01), and duration of treatment (r = 0.336, p < 0.001). Married mothers experienced less CB than those that were widowed or divorced. Within the regression equation, SS satisfaction, SS availability, marital status, and duration of treatment were the predictors of CB.
Significance of results
Based on the results of the current study, mothers who have less SS, especially those who are single mothers, with younger children, and who have taken care of their child for an extended duration should be given special attention. Furthermore, it appears that there are distinct cultural variations amongst Iranian mothers which suggest that culture may impact upon SS availability. Results also suggest a need for interventions that enhance nurses' ability to provide support to caregivers and the broader family unit as a whole. Nurses in cancer care need to have psychological competencies to help family members of cancer patients especially mothers and more so those that are single mothers. As integral members of the patient care experience, nurses may be uniquely positioned to provide this needed psychosocial support.
Oral treatment (targeted or chemotherapy) for cancer is being increasingly used. While fatigue is a known side effect of intravenous chemotherapy, the rate of fatigue and the impact of fatigue on other patient-reported outcomes are not well described.
At Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, 180 adult patients prescribed oral targeted or chemotherapy for various malignancies enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of adherence and symptom management. Patients completed baseline self-reported measures of fatigue (Brief Fatigue Inventory; BFI), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), and quality of life, including subscales for physical, social, emotional, and functional well-being ([QOL] Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy — General; FACT-G). We examined clinically relevant fatigue using a validated cut-off score for moderate-severe fatigue (BFI global fatigue ≥4) and tested the associations with anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and QOL with independent samples t-tests.
At baseline, 45 of 180 participants (25.0%) reported moderate-severe fatigue. Fatigued patients experienced more anxiety symptoms (mean diff. 3.73, P < 0.001), more depressive symptoms (mean diff. 4.14, P < 0.001), and worse QOL on the total FACT-G score (mean diff. −19.58, P < 0.001) and all subscales of the FACT-G compared to patients without moderate-severe fatigue.
Significance of results
One in four patients on oral treatment for cancer experienced clinically relevant fatigue that is associated with greater anxiety and depressive symptoms and worse QOL.
This chapter considers how did Ghanaian physicists made nuclear science their own under the watchful eye of the International Atomic Energy Agency within what I term a “nuclear protectorate?” During the long battle to secure a nuclear reactor for the Ghana, GAEC sustained one of its additional roles as outlined in the initial 1963 Act 204 that had established it: monitoring radiation at the nation’s x-ray facilities. This work gave GAEC a mandate to apply physics to human bodies. Hospitals and ports turned on radiation sources and GAEC scientists monitored them to measure the levels of exposure to radiographers. Nuclear physicists also introduced new ways to irradiate insects to sterilize pesky disease-carrying flies and kill insect eggs on crops to prolong shelf live. While it took a long time to expand their research programs with an actual reactor, GAEC scientists managed to flourish in their continued quest to make physics relevant to Ghanaian life. The IAEA came to depend on Ghanaian experts as some of the most highly trained nuclear scientists in Africa. They were constantly in demand to represent the continent in IAEA committees, training programs, and observational teams.
Considering a potential exercise-drug interaction, we investigated whether exercise training could improve the efficacy of specific antiparasitic chemotherapy in a rodent model of Chagas disease. Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: sedentary and uninfected (CT); sedentary and infected (SI); sedentary, infected and treated (SIT); trained and infected (TI); trained, infected and treated (TIT). After 9-weeks running training, the animals were infected with T. cruzi and followed up for 4 weeks, receiving 100 mg kg−1 day−1 benznidazole. No evidence of myocarditis was observed in CT animals. TI animals exhibited reduced parasitemia, myocarditis, and reactive tissue damage compared to SI animals, in addition to increased IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, heart non-protein antioxidant (NPA) levels and glutathione-s transferase activity (P < 0.05). The CT, SIT and TIT groups presented similar reductions in parasitemia, cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and MCP-1), inflammatory infiltrate, oxidative heart damage and antioxidant enzymes activity compared to SI and TI animals, as well as reduced heart microstructural remodeling (P < 0.05). By modulating heart inflammation and redox metabolism, exercise training exerts a protective effect against T. cruzi infection in rats. However, the antiparasitic and cardioprotective effects of benznidazole chemotherapy are more pronounced, determining similar endpoints in sedentary and trained T. cruzi-infected rats.
The unique behaviour of microbubbles under ultrasound acoustic pressure makes them useful agents for drug and gene delivery. Several studies have demonstrated the potential application of microbubbles as a non-invasive, safe and effective technique for targeted delivery of drugs and genes. The drugs can be incorporated into the microbubbles in several different approaches and then carried to the site of interest where it can be released by destruction of the microbubbles using ultrasound to achieve the required therapeutic effect.
The objective of this article is to report on a review of the recent advances of ultrasound-mediated microbubbles as a vehicle for delivering drugs and genes and its potential application for the treatment of cancer.
Ultrasound-mediated microbubble technology has the potential to significantly improve chemotherapy drug delivery to treatment sites with minimal side effects. Moreover, the technology can induce temporary and reversible changes in the permeability of cells and vessels, thereby allowing for drug delivery in a spatially localised region which can improve the efficiency of drugs with poor bioavailability due to their poor absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination.
Tobacco is a known addictive consumer product and its use has been reported to be associated with several health problems as well as the leading cause of premature, preventable mortality worldwide. For patients undergoing cancer treatment, tobacco smoking can potentially compromise treatment effectiveness; however, there is sufficient evidence suggesting numerous health benefits of smoking cessation interventions for cancer patients.
The Grand River Regional Cancer Centre (GRRCC) smoking cessation program began in October 2013 to provide evidence-based intensive tobacco intervention to patients. All new patients are screened for tobacco use and those identified as active smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and offered referral to the program where a cessation nurse offers counseling. Patients’ disease site, initial cessation goal, quit date, number of quit attempts and mode of contact are collected by the cessation nurse. This study reports on the initial evaluation of the smoking cessation program activities at GRRCC.
There are 1,210 patients who were screened, accepted a referral and counseled in the program. The referral pattern shows a modest increase every year and most of the patients (58%) indicated readiness to quit smoking. Overall, 29 and 26% of patients either quit or cut-back smoking, respectively. Among 348 patients who quit smoking, 300 (86%) were able to quit at the first attempt. The data indicated that 309 (44%) out of the 698 patients who indicated their initial intent to quit smoking were able to quit, whereas about 242 (35%) were able to cutback. A total of 15 patients out of 32 who indicated initial readiness to ‘cutback’ smoking were able to reduce tobacco use and three patients actually ended up quitting, although their initial goal was ‘ready-to-cut-back’.
GRRCC smoking cessation program started in October 2013 to provide evidence-based intensive smoking cessation interventions for patients with cancer. Most patients referred to the program indicated a readiness to quit smoking affirming that if patients become aware of the various risks associated with continual smoking or if they are informed of the benefits associated with cessation with regard to their treatment, they will be more likely to decide to quit. Therefore, it is essential that patients, their partners and families are counseled on the health and treatment benefits of smoking cessation and sustainable programs should be available to support them to quit smoking. It is imperative then, that oncology programs should consistently identify and document the smoking status of cancer patients and support those who use tobacco at the time of diagnosis to quit. Evidence-based smoking cessation intervention should be sustainably integrated into the cancer care continuum in all oncology programs from prevention of cancer through diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care.
The adverse health effects associated with smoking tobacco have been well investigated, and its detrimental effects on cancer treatment outcomes, efficacy and quality of life (QOL) for cancer patients have also been well documented. Tobacco smoke contains many thousands of chemicals, including a plethora of carcinogens, and the exposure of human cells to these carcinogens, and their metabolic activation, is the main mechanism by which smoking-related cancer is initiated.
Materials and Methods:
This paper reports on a narrative review of recent studies in the field of effects of tobacco smoking on cancer treatment, including the effects of carcinogens in smoke on carcinogenesis, cell mutations and the immune system. The health effects of smokeless tobacco, effects of tobacco smoking on cancer treatment, and its impact on surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are reported. The potential risks of second primary cancers or recurrence from tobacco use, the effects of second-hand smoking and cancer treatment, the impact of smoking on the QOL after cancer treatment and the need to integrate smoking cessation programs into the cancer care continuum are also reported.
Tobacco use has a direct impact on cellular function by inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating proliferation and decreasing the efficacy of cancer treatment; therefore, quitting its use has the potential to improve treatment response rates and survival, as well as reduces the risk of developing second cancers and potentially improves the QOL after treatment. Smoking cessation is one of the most important interventions to prevent cancer and is also essential after the diagnosis of cancer to improve clinical outcomes. Due to the numerous benefits of smoking cessation, it should become a critical component of the cancer care continuum in all oncology programs – from prevention of cancer through diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care. Evidence-based smoking cessation intervention should be sustainably integrated into any comprehensive cancer program, and the information should be targeted to the specific benefits of cessation in cancer patients.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis in humans, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD). Imidazole compounds are used for the treatment of trichomoniasis, and metronidazole is the most commonly prescribed. However, these compounds can lead to parasite resistance and unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative treatment for this disease. Here, we explored the potential of clotrimazole (CTZ) and zinc compounds, as well as CTZ complexed with zinc salts ( acetate [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] and  a chloride [Zn(CTZ)2Cl2] complexes) against T. vaginalis. We synthesized the zinc complexed CTZ compounds and determined their concentration values that inhibited parasite growth by 50% (IC50). We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to visualize the ultrastructural alterations induced by CTZ and their zinc complexes. The incubation of the parasites with [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] complex inhibited their growth, yielding an IC50 of 4.9 µm. Moreover, there were changes in the shape of treated parasites, including the formation of surface projections that subsequently detached from the cell, in addition to changes in the hydrogenosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. We found [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] to be a highly effective compound against T. vaginalis in vitro, suggesting its potential utility as an alternative chemotherapy for trichomoniasis.
To evaluate the use of exercise in managing fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To explore the effectiveness of different exercise practices and explore how optimum management of fatigue might be achieved.
A CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) database search of literature was undertaken and publications screened for retrieval with 24 qualifying for inclusion in the review.
There is evidence to support various forms of exercise including aerobic, resistance, alternative and combination exercise in the management of fatigue in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. The benefits of exercise for patients with later stage and metastatic disease is less clear and there is a lack of published research related to this category of patient.
Exercise is considered a safe, non-pharmacological intervention for early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. Further investigation is required into optimum exercise interventions and the effectiveness and viability of supervised and unsupervised models. Patient centred tailored advice and guidance needs to be developed and effectively promoted by therapeutic radiographers in order for patients to fully realise the benefit.
DNA double-strand break (DSB) results in the phosphorylation of the protein, H.2AX histone. In this study, the effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on DNA DSB in cervical cancer cells is analysed by the phosphorylation of the protein.
The cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) were cultured and exposed to ionising radiation. Radiation sensitivity was measured by clonogenic survival fraction after exposing to ionising radiation. Since the phosphorylation of H.2AX declines with time, the DNA damage was quantified at different time points: 1 hour, 3 hours and 1 week after exposed to the radiation. The analysis of γ-H.2AX was done by Western-blot technique. The protein expression was observed at different dose of radiation and combination of both radiation and paclitaxel.
Low-dose hypersensitivity was observed. By 1 week after radiation at 0·5, 0·8 and 2 Gy, there was no expression of phosphorylated H.2AX. Previous experiments on the expression of phosphorylated H.2AX (γ-H.2AX) in terms of foci analysis was found to peak at 1 hour and subsequently decline with time. In cells treated with the DNA damaging agents, the expression of phosphorylated H.2AX decreases in a dose-dependent manner when treated with radiation alone. However, when combined with paclitaxel, at 0·5 Gy, the expression peaked and reduces at 0·8 Gy and slightly elevated at 2 Gy.
In this study, the peak phosphorylation was observed at 3 hour post irradiation indicating that DSBs are still left unrepaired.
Weekly low-dose cisplatin is routinely used in concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC), despite 3-weekly cisplatin being the standard of care. We compared compliance, toxicity and efficacy in weekly versus 3-weekly cisplatin CCRT in LAHNC.
Materials and methods
In this retrospective study, weekly cisplatin 50 mg flat dose was compared with 3-weekly cisplatin 100 mg/m2, when given in CCRT in LAHNC with curative intent. The study outcome was compliance, toxicity, loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Eighty-four patients received CCRT from January 2013 to June 2017, 40 in weekly and 44 in 3-weekly arm. There was no difference between the arms not completing scheduled radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Patient receiving 200 mg/m2 cisplatin is higher in 3-weekly arm compared with weekly arm (75 versus 40·9%; p<0·0015). Compared with 3-weekly arm, more patient in weekly arm developed grade ≥3 mucositis (52·5 versus 15·9%, p=0·0004), day care intravenous hydration (82·5 versus 38·6% <0·0001) and in-patient admission (55·0 versus 18·2%; p=0·0004). The 2-year LRC, DFS and OS in weekly versus 3-weekly arm were: 70 versus 61·4% (p=0·406); 67·5 versus 56·8% (p=0·314); 67·5 versus 61·4% (p=0·558), respectively. The median time to LRR, DFs and OS was not reached.
Weekly cisplatin is comparable with 3-weekly cisplatin in terms of compliance, disease control and survival, but with increased grade 3 mucositis and higher admissions for supportive care.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if intraindividual variability would be more sensitive than speed or accuracy in detecting subtle cancer-related cognitive disturbance. Methods: Data were from a previous study in which 60 breast cancer (BC) patients underwent neuropsychological assessment before commencement of chemotherapy and again following each chemotherapy cycle. Sixty healthy controls were tested at equivalent intervals. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare the BC and control groups in terms of accuracy, mean reaction time, and intraindividual variability in reaction time on a computerized continuous performance test with three conditions: a simple reaction time task, a “1-back” task, and a “2-back” task. Results: An increase in accuracy and response speed over sessions was noted on some tasks in the sample as a whole but there were no differences in these parameters between the BC patients and the controls on any condition. There was a significant group difference in change in intraindividual variability across sessions (i.e., a “group × session interaction”), albeit only on the most complex “2-back” task. Intraindividual variability declined in the control group (i.e., consistency improved with practice) but this practice effect was significantly attenuated in the BC patients. There was no main effect of group on the “2-back” task. Conclusions: Results support our hypothesis that intraindividual variability is a more sensitive indicator of subtle cognitive disturbance than conventional speed or accuracy measures and may have potential in the assessment of mild cognitive impairment in patients with non-central nervous system cancers. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–11)
The anti-leishmania effects of HIV peptidase inhibitors (PIs) have been widely reported; however, the biochemical target and mode of action are still a matter of controversy in Leishmania parasites. Considering the possibility that HIV-PIs induce lipid accumulation in Leishmania amazonensis, we analysed the effects of lopinavir on the lipid metabolism of L. amazonensis promastigotes. To this end, parasites were treated with lopinavir at different concentrations and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry, using a fluorescent lipophilic marker. Then, the cellular ultrastructure of treated and control parasites was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the lipid composition was investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Finally, the sterol content was assayed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). TEM analysis revealed an increased number of lipid inclusions in lopinavir-treated cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the lipophilic content, in a dose-dependent manner. TLC and GC–MS analysis revealed a marked increase of cholesterol-esters and cholesterol. In conclusion, lopinavir-induced lipid accumulation and affected lipid composition in L. amazonensis in a concentration–response manner. These data contribute to a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of action of this HIV-PI in L. amazonensis promastigotes. The concerted action of lopinavir on this and other cellular processes, such as the direct inhibition of an aspartyl peptidase, may be responsible for the arrested development of the parasite.
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs). To reach elimination targets, the community will need to adapt global events and changing policy environments to ensure programmes are responsive and can sustain progress towards NTD targets. Innovative thinking embedded within regional and national health systems is needed. Policy makers, managers and frontline health workers are the mediators between challenge and change at global and local levels. This paper attempts to address the challenges to end the chronic pandemic of NTDs and achieve the SDG targets. It concludes with a conceptual framework that illustrates the interactions between these key challenges and opportunities and emphasizes the health system as a critical mediator.
Local chemotherapy with biocompatible drug-delivery systems prolongs survival in patients. Due to the biocompatibility and high loading capacity, bentonite nanoclay is a good candidate for the fabrication of drug-delivery vehicles. In this study, doxorubicin-bentonite nanoclay complex (DOX-Bent complex) was prepared for the first time as a sustained-release drug-delivery system for intratumoural chemotherapy of melanoma. An efficient loading of DOX on 1 mg of bentonite nanoclay as high as 994.45 ± 4.9 µg was obtained at a 30:1 DOX:bentonite nanoclay mass ratio. The DOX-Bent complex showed a low initial burst release of DOX in the first 24 h of release, followed by a sustained-release pattern for 21 days. The cumulative in vitro release of DOX from the DOX-Bent complex at pHs 6.5 and 7.4 revealed that the DOX-Bent complex can distinguish between tumour and normal tissues and express specific drug release at the tumour site. The results of cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the release pattern of DOX can supply sufficient DOX to inhibit growth of the melanoma cancer cell with an IC50 of 0.29 ± 0.07 µg/mL. It is thus suggested that the DOX-Bent complex be introduced as a drug-delivery system for effective local cancer therapy.