To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is accompanied by alterations in grey matter volume. However, the biological processes associated with regional structural perturbations remain elusive.
We applied integrative omics analysis to investigate specialized transcriptome signatures and translational determinants associated with regional grey matter variations in 2737 MDD patients relative to 3098 controls by summarizing the results from gene co-expression network analysis of Allen human brain transcriptome profiles in six donors, enrichment analysis of gene-sets and cellular structure from rodents and mediation analysis of BrainSpan proteome profile in six donors.
We found convergent alterations of grey matter volume in MDD were associated with transcriptome profiles enriched for synaptic transmission, metabolism, immune processes and transmembrane transport. Genes with abnormal expression in post-mortem tissue in MDD were also associated with transcriptome signatures. Further gene co-expression network and enrichment analysis of MDD-related genes in these signatures revealed the modules with higher neuronal expression were enriched in the medial temporal cortex and temporo-parietal junction with genes differentially associated with neuronal development and metabolism. Also, the modules with higher non-neuronal (e.g. astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) expression were concentrated in the rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and were separately associated with immune response and transmembrane transport. Moreover, proteins as the gene expression products mediated the association between transcriptome signatures and brain volume changes in the visual and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Our multidimensional analyses offer a novel approach to detect specific biological pathways that capture regional structural variations in MDD, which suggests structural endophenotypes associated with MDD.
Biological hazards are one of the most important and common types of hazards in emergencies and disasters. Hospital preparedness measures for biological hazards are essential for a proper response and mitigation of its effects. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate hospital preparedness measures for biological hazards.
For this research, electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library from March 1950 to June 2019 were searched. Key words such as hospital, emergency department, preparedness, plan, management, and biological hazards were used in combination with the Boolean operators OR and AND. A thematic synthesis approach through the use of MAXQDA software was applied to analyze the data.
In total, 5257 articles were identified, in which 23 articles meet the inclusion criteria for entering the process of final analysis. The findings showed three main administrative, specialized, and logistical issues regarding preparedness measures for biological hazards in hospitals.
Hospital preparedness for biological hazards is one of the most important hospital disaster plans. Results of this systematic review present valuable advice for policy-makers and hospital managers to prepare and enhance hospital performance against biological hazards.
Biological weapons are one of the oldest weapons of mass destruction used by man. Their use has not only determined the outcome of battles, but also influenced the fate of entire civilizations. Although the use of biological weapons agents in a terrorist attack is currently unlikely, all services responsible for the surveillance and removal of epidemiological threats must have clear guidelines and emergency response plans.
In the face of the numerous threats appearing in the world, it has become necessary to put the main emphasis on modernizing, securing, and maintaining structures in the field of medicine which are prepared for unforeseen crises and situations related to the use of biological agents.
This article presents Poland’s current preparation to take action in the event of a bioterrorist threat. The study presents both the military aspect and procedures for dealing with contamination.
In Poland, as in other European Union countries fighting terrorism, preparations should be made to defend against biological attacks, improve the flow of information on the European security system, strengthen research centers, train staff, create observation units and vaccination centers, as well as prepare hospitals for the hospitalization of patients—potential victims of bioterrorist attacks.
Chapter 1 explains how the history of accessing pathogens for public health research closely follows the history of accessing other (non-pathogenic) genetic resources for all forms of biological research. The genetic resources that were previously considered to be the common heritage of humankind are now subject to (sometimes conflicting) claims of intellectual property protections and sovereign rights. The result is the enclosure of pathogens in legal schemes that have increased costs and created delays in accessing the pathogen samples that are vital to conducting infectious disease surveillance, pharmaceutical research and development, and informing the public health response to outbreaks. While the validity of gene patents (and therefore patents claiming the genomes of pathogens or part thereof) are now in question, access to pathogens is still encumbered by an increasingly complex set of access and benefit-sharing laws that vary across domestic jurisdictions. This chapter examines these historical developments, explaining how pathogens were eventually captured by a regulation that was originally designed as an environmental conservation mechanism, and the impacts of “hyperownership” on accessing pathogen samples for public health research.
Chapter 6 discusses biosecurity in the transfer of human pathogens. In the aftermath of the 2014–2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak, there were thousands of Ebola samples that went unaccounted for as well as virus samples stored in facilities that did not have an appropriate level of biosecurity and biosafety. The chapter reviews the existing global governance mechanisms for addressing this biosafety and biosecurity concern, and the ongoing debate amongst donor countries as to the best path forward. The chapter describes efforts to support the Government of Sierra Leone to find and secure Ebola samples as foreign labs shut down, identifying the challenges of tracking all Ebola samples and their associated data, and efforts to place those samples in suitable inventoried repositories by local health authorities. The chapter concludes with recommendations for governments around the world to ensure that plans, procedures and regulations are in place prior to the chaos of an emergency in order to ensure that dangerous pathogens are handled in safe and secure manners, that data are preserved for research, and appropriate practices are implemented.
Anthrax is a potential biological weapon and can be used in an air-borne or mail attack, such as in the attack in the United States in 2001. Planning for such an event requires the best available science. Since large-scale experiments are not feasible, mathematical modelling is a crucial tool to inform planning. The aim of this study is to systematically review and evaluate the approaches to mathematical modelling of inhalational anthrax attack to support public health decision making and response.
A systematic review of inhalational anthrax attack models was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The models were reviewed based on a set of defined criteria, including the inclusion of atmospheric dispersion component and capacity for real-time decision support.
Of 13 mathematical modelling studies of human inhalational anthrax attacks, there were six studies that took atmospheric dispersion of anthrax spores into account. Further, only two modelling studies had potential utility for real-time decision support, and only one model was validated using real data.
The limited modelling studies available use widely varying methods, assumptions, and data. Estimation of attack size using different models may be quite different, and is likely to be under-estimated by models which do not consider weather conditions. Validation with available data is crucial and may improve models. Further, there is a need for both complex models that can provide accurate atmospheric dispersion modelling, as well as for simpler modelling tools that provide real-time decision support for epidemic response.
The chief place Norwegian ecologists would meet, train their students, and explore the environment was The High Mountain Ecology Research Station, established at Finse in 1965 and located in one of the most beautiful mountain regions of Norway. When finished in 1972 it was, perhaps, the largest and most expensive ecological research station in Europe. The formative years of ecological research in Norway took place at Finse and were supported by ecologists such as Arne Semb-Johansson, Eilif Dahl, Rolf Vik, Eivind Østbye, and the International Biological Program. The picturesque Research Station at Finse was idyllic in comparison to the ecological destruction described in a growing body of environmental literature. Propelled by the publication of Rachel Carson’s warning against pesticides in Silent Spring (1962), the ecologists at Finse became powerful lobbyists in favor of large-scale national parks in the nation’s periphery. They sought an “eco-politics” founded on science, as our common future depended on the development of a “steady-state” social economy that would mirror the steady-state balance of the zero-growth economy of nature at Finse.
While both depression and aging have been associated with oxidative stress and impaired immune response, little is known about redox patterns in elderly depressed subjects. This study investigates the relationship between redox/inflammatory patterns and depression in a sample of elderly adults.
The plasma levels of the advanced products of protein oxidation (AOPP), catalase (CAT), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), glutathione transferase (GST), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiols (TT), and uric acid (UA) were evaluated in 30 patients with mood disorders with a current depressive episode (depressed patients, DP) as well as in 30 healthy controls (HC) aged 65 years and over. Subjects were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDS), the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Reason for Living Inventory (RFL), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL).
DP showed higher levels than HC of AOPP and IL-6, while displaying lower levels of FRAP, TT, and CAT. In the DP group, specific correlations were found among biochemical parameters. SOD, FRAP, UA, and TT levels were also significantly related to psychometric scale scores.
Specific alterations of redox systems are detectable among elderly DP.
Doryctobracon areolatus is a native parasitoid of the Neotropical region that presents the highest percentages of natural parasitism of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. In the Moscafrut Program SADER-SENASICA, located in Metapa de Domínguez, Chiapas, Mexico, a laboratory colony of this species is maintained on Anastrepha ludens, the Mexican fruit fly, with the aim to scale the production of the parasitoid up to massive levels. In order to eliminate unwanted emergence of adult flies during the rearing process, this study evaluated the effect of irradiation (at doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy) applied to eggs, and first and second instar larvae of A. ludens; all irradiated stages were subsequently exposed as second instar larvae to adult females of D. areolatus. Irradiation did not affect the eclosion of A. ludens eggs but, at doses of 40 and 50 Gy, it did cause delayed larval development and pupation, as well as lower larval weight. Adult fly emergence was suppressed at all doses, except in eggs irradiated at 20 Gy. Doses of 20 and 30 Gy applied to the eggs and larvae did not affect the emergence, survival, fecundity or flight ability of the emerged parasitoids, but the second instar larvae were easily handled during the rearing process. Our results suggest that D. areolatus can be successfully produced in second instar larvae of A. ludens irradiated at 30 Gy.
America’s entrepreneurial culture is important because it promotes the search for new opportunities for innovation. Here, the author traces that culture through two industrial revolutions and focuses on the growing tension between entrepreneurship and bureaucracy inside and outside of the nation’s twentieth-century firms. Business histories are explored using categories adapted from behavioral economics. Particular attention is devoted to some of the important exceptions that throw light upon the stereotypes of the static government agency and the slow-moving industrial firm. Still, the author concludes, following World War II the economy had to be pulled out of its bureaucratic doldrums by new science- and social science-based industries that invigorated the nation’s entrepreneurial culture and promoted a wave of significant biological and digital innovations. The article concludes with a glance at the future of the bureaucratic and entrepreneurial cultures.
Physicians’ management of hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents requires personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization to ensure the safety of victims, facilities, and providers; therefore, providing effective and accessible training in its use is crucial. While an emphasis has been placed on the importance of PPE, there is debate about the most effective training methods. Circumstances may not allow for a traditional in-person demonstration; an accessible video training may provide a useful alternative.
Video training of Emergency Medicine (EM) residents in the donning and doffing of Level C PPE is more effective than in-person training.
Video training of EM residents in the donning and doffing of Level C PPE is equally effective compared with in-person training.
A randomized, controlled pilot trial was performed with 20 EM residents as part of their annual Emergency Preparedness training. Residents were divided into four groups, with Group 1 and Group 2 viewing a demonstration video developed by the Emergency Preparedness Team (EPT) and Group 3 and Group 4 receiving the standard in-person demonstration training by an EPT member. The groups then separately performed a donning and doffing simulation while blinded evaluators assessed critical tasks utilizing a prepared evaluation tool. At the drill’s conclusion, all participants also completed a self-evaluation survey about their subjective interpretations of their respective trainings.
Both video and in-person training modalities showed significant overall improvement in participants’ confidence in doffing and donning PPE equipment (P <.05). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the number of failed critical tasks in donning or doffing between the training modalities (P >.05). Based on these results, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. However, these results were limited by the small sample size and the study was not sufficiently powered to show a difference between training modalities.
In this pilot study, video and in-person training were equally effective in training for donning and doffing Level C PPE, with similar error rates in both modalities. Further research into this subject with an appropriately powered study is warranted to determine whether this equivalence persists using a larger sample size.
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is the most important egg parasitoid of Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and its successful parasitism is related to their searching ability to find suitable hosts under a complex chemical environment using host-reliable cues. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate chemical substances on the external layer of E. heros eggs and report its potential kairomonal activity on T. podisi. We tested female wasps in olfactometer system to synthetic compounds obtained from a chemical identification of E. heros egg masses. The synthetic blend was also evaluated in parasitism tests under laboratory and semi-field conditions. We identified 31 substances from egg surface extracts, including monoterpenes, aldehydes and alkanes. Among those compounds, a synthetic solution including camphene, β-pinene, limonene and benzaldehyde-induced chemotaxic behaviour on the wasps and increased the parasitism on E. heros eggs, either in laboratory or semi-field test, suggesting its potential use to T. podisi manipulation and parasitism improvement.
In our rejoinder to the excellent commentaries provided by Macfie, Noose, and Gorrondona (This Volume) and Davies and Thompson (This Volume), we discuss three key directions for research and clinical work that emerge from our chapter on environmental and sociocultural influences on personality disorders. First, it is critical to recognize the importance of early caregiving environments and family processes in the etiology of personality pathology. Second, identifying transactional models that integrate biological, psychological and sociocultural influences may move the field towards a more holistic and multifaceted understanding of the underpinnings of personality pathology. Third and finally, expanding the use of dimensional models of personality pathology may contextualize these transactional relationships and facilitate more rapid advances in our understanding and conceptualizations of (mal)adaptive expressions of personality traits. Dimensional models may further facilitate consideration of socioeconomic, cultural and geopolitical influences in evaluating and defining the maladaptiveness of specific traits and behaviors. Increasing our focus on contextual, environmental, and sociocultural influences in research design, assessment, and case conceptualization will improve personality research and clinical care.
The search for mechanisms in personality disorders (PDs) is of growing importance, because PDs are prevalent, costly, and challenging to treat. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of compelling mechanistic research on PDs and psychopathology more broadly, due to equivocal definitions of a “mechanism” and study designs that are atheoretical and/or ill-suited for causal inferences.This chapter defines mechanisms as elements of possible causal sequence, which not only increase the probability of observed outcomes but also reveal how the outcomes occur. In addition, the authors argue that it is not always necessary to break down a mechanism to its most elemental physical parts; rather, it is important to consider how mechanisms act as complex, interacting components of a causal chain, with a focus on those that could serve as viable targets for prevention and intervention. Considering this broader definition of a “mechanism,” it is crucial that PD researchers ground their work in testable theories, such as those considering dimensional, transdiagnostic precursors to PDs. In this chapter, the authors also address various design and statistical considerations in PD mechanistic research and highlight promising developments in identifying mechanisms of PDs across multiple levels of measurement (e.g., biological, contextual, environmental) and across the lifespan.
Pottery Mound is a large Ancestral Puebloan site situated within the Middle Rio Grande (MRG) region of New Mexico. This article adds to our understanding of relationships between Pottery Mound, the Western Pueblos, and Mexico through use of biological distance analysis based on dental nonmetric traits. Extensive material and cultural influences, as well as migration events from Western Pueblos to Pottery Mound, have been proposed by several scholars, while others have highlighted parallels to Mexico, especially Paquimé. A total of 1,528 individuals from the U.S. Southwest and Mexico were used to examine relationships between Pottery Mound and these areas. We find no evidence of close biological similarity between Pottery Mound and the Western Pueblos or northern Mexico. Instead, the results indicate biological affinity between Pottery Mound and sites in the MRG region and Mogollon areas. This similarity suggests that although there is evidence for trade between Pottery Mound and other sites in the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica, trade may not have been accompanied by significant gene flow from those areas from which the trade goods originated. It is possible that neighboring regions, such as the Mogollon, served as intermediaries for trade between Pottery Mound and distant regions.
High rates of mortality and morbidity result from disasters of all types, including armed conflicts. Overwhelming numbers of casualties with a myriad of illnesses and patterns of injuries are common in armed conflicts, leading to unpredictable workloads for hospital health care providers (HCPs). Identifying domains of hospital HCPs’ core competency for armed conflicts is essential to inform standards of care, educational requirements, and to facilitate the translation of knowledge into safe and quality care.
The objective of this study is to identify the common domains of core competencies among HCPs working in hospitals in armed conflict areas.
A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute framework. The review considered primary research and peer-reviewed literature from the following databases: Ovid Medline, Ovid EmCare, Embase, and CINAHL, as well as the reference lists of articles identified for full-text review. Eligibility criteria were outlined a priori to guide the literature selection.
Four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in different countries and were published from 2011 through 2017. The methods included three surveys and one Delphi study.
This review maps the scope of knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by HCPs who are practicing in hospitals in areas of major armed conflict. Incorporation of identified core competency domains can improve the future planning, education, and training, and may enhance the HCPs’ response in armed conflicts.
The aim of this study was to identify possible peripheral biological markers (both lipidic and hormonal) which can be easily used for the early detection of parasuicidal behaviour and to propose a predictive biological model of such behaviour. A case-control analytical study was undertaken at least 3 months after attempted suicide. Study was made of 128 patients who presented at the University General Hospital of Oviedo (Spain) with signs of self-intoxication. Lipidic and hormonal profiles were measured under basal conditions and comparison was made with a control group of healthy volunteer donors obtained from the Oviedo General Hospital blood bank. A discriminant analysis was later made with the aim of establishing a predictive biological model. This included the following variables: cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and cortisol. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 65.6%, respectively. Replication and improvement of this model, through other prospective studies, could lead to the use of serum cholesterol and cortisol levels as inexpensive and readily available markers of suicide risk.
International biodiversity policies have evolved with different contexts and motivations. Moving from a strictly biodiversity-centred focus, with the creation of early national parks, they now include people and their needs in the conservation policy perspective. Here we provide a brief history over the last 50 years of the development of global United Nations conventions. Focusing on the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the recent establishment of the Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the 2030 Agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), we explore how these three institutions function and align. We discuss the role of science and evidence in decision-making and review current developments. Finally, we provide an outlook of how scientists can actively engage to provide science impact in advancing conservation policy-making.
Five endogenous depressed patients were asked to participate in a phase-shift experiment consisting of advancing, by 5 hours, the time-schedule of the major external synchronizers such as light/dark cycle, sleep/wake, meal-time and social activity cycles. Clinical and biological parameters (body temperature, plasma cortisol, TSH and norepinephrine (NE) circadian rhythms) were observed throughout this two week period. The circadian rhythms were severely altered in the pre-treatment period, with a significant reduction of amplitude. During the phase shift experiment, the clinical state of the patients improved significantly. Their circadian rhythms were dramatically impaired in the first days of the procedure and were then restored after the first week, with higher amplitude. However, the TSH circadian rhythm remained unentrained by the phase shift leading to an internal desynchronization. Our findings suggest that entrainment of internal clocks by environmental information may be impaired in depression.
Biological depression research can boast of a number of significant achievements over the past 35 years. Yet, in spite of those achievements, the field is in danger of desiccation. Five reasons are discussed herein: 1) short-comings of the DSM-based depression classification; 2) the ever increasing number of, generally poorly validated, diagnostic categories; 3) desubjectivation of psychiatric diagnosing; 4) the lack of a dimensional (better: functional) component in diagnosing depression; and 5) horizontalism, ie the absence of attempts to group symptoms “vertically” according to their diagnostic weight. The issues are in need of urgent scientific attention, lest biological depression research will stagnate and ultimately whither. We have indicated ways to approach the issues.