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Domestic violence is a global phenomenon that concerns a broad variety of disciplines and stakeholders. Domestic violence does not discriminate; it occurs in all countries and settings, across all socioeconomic levels, and religious cultural groups. All family types -- nuclear and extended, traditional, same-sex, and all other varieties -- are at risk. Data clearly show that women are more likely to be victims and men are more likely to be perpetrators. Similar acts of violence, if perpetrated outside of the home, would be punishable by law, but the same acts are often accepted when they occur in the domestic sphere. In this chapter, we discuss the problem of domestic violence for women in the global South. The global South encompasses many countries and cultures that share certain developmental characteristics; however, official and societal responses to domestic violence prevention and protection differ. Some countries in this region have passed laws designed to counter domestic violence, but others have not. The psychological sequel associated with domestic violence is concerning.
This chapter explains the universal psychological roots and “laws” that affect all media and entertainment products and services. The functionality of the Internet and the role of advertising is also covered along with accounting and valuation issues.
This chapter introduces the reader to current treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Much of the evidence is summarised within NICE guidelines (and APA and Australian and New Zealand guidelines) but in this chapter, treatment is also linked to the age of the patient and stage of the illness. Although this chapter is lengthy it is one of the three core chapters.
Many caregivers report finding positive meanings in their caregiving roles and activities. The positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) scale was designed to measure positive appraisals of caregiving. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PAC for family caregivers of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
The instrument's content and semantic equivalence were established using translation and back translation of the PAC. A convenience sample of 127 family caregivers of patients with ALS in Korea was recruited. Content, construct, and convergent validity of the Korean PAC were evaluated. Cronbach's α was used to assess reliability. This study used secondary data; the primary study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of H Hospital, from where data were collected. The consent forms did not mention the future use of data. Therefore, we have applied for approval regarding this study's protocol and exemption from informed consent.
The Cronbach's α was 0.92, and internal consistency was acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis supported the construct validity with a two-factor solution explaining 74.73% of the total variance. Regarding convergent validity, the Korean PAC score negatively correlated with caregiver burden and depression and positively with self-rated health status. We were unable to evaluate the suitability of the suggested structural dimensionality through confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, as we used secondary data, we could not assess retest reliability for the evaluation of the scale's stability.
Significance of results
The Korean PAC was found to be an applicable instrument with satisfactory reliability and validity and suitable for further use as a measure for positive appraisals of caregiving for family caregivers of people with ALS. It may be effective for measuring caregivers’ psychological resources.
La Société de psychologie médicale et de psychiatrie de liaison de langue française souhaite consacrer un symposium à la place grandissante des « malades complexes » en psychiatrie de liaison, situations exigeant plus que toute autre, une intervention multidisciplinaire coordonnée, basée sur des expertises complémentaires, telles qu’elles sont réunies tout particulièrement dans les Centres Hospitalo-Universitaires. Ces situations sont également exemplaires pour aborder les aspects médico-économiques et proposer des pistes pour une valorisation des activités de psychiatrie de liaison. La complexité bio-psycho-sociale des cas rencontrés sera déclinée et approchée :
– à l’aide d’outils évaluatifs, comme INTERMED, en cours de validation dans différents pays européens sous sa forme d’auto-questionnaire ;
– au travers d’exemples de patients pris en charge dans des secteurs d’excellence comme la chirurgie bariatrique, les greffes cardiaques ou le cœur artificiel, à l’Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris ou dans d’autres Centres Hospitalo-Universitaires, comme le CHU d’Angers ;
– en précisant les rôles respectifs des psychiatres, psychologues, infirmiers de liaison ;
– en brossant la diversité des approches thérapeutiques initiées ou envisagées ;
– enfin en réfléchissant à l’impact médico-économique de la complexité et des interventions menées pour rendre plus efficient le parcours de soins de ces patients et mieux préserver leur qualité de vie.
According to Russian official statistics the average life period in males is about 59 years while in females it is about 73. The average marriage age for males is 24.4 and 22.2 for females. Thus statistically average woman in Russia lives in widowhood more than 15 years.
16 females aged 43 - 76 who began alcohol abuse in the second life period after (or during) social stress were studied. Specially elaborated Alcohol Intake Motive Self-esteem (AIMSE) scale was used.
According to ICD-10 criteria alcohol intake in all females conformed to F10.1 - Alcohol Dependence, in 12 it conformed to F10.3 - Alcohol Withdrawal. Duration of alcohol misuse before first appeal to addiction specialist varied from 1 to 8 years (mean 3,3±1,2 years). Mean duration of addiction forming was 1,8±,1,1 years; mean daily 100% ethanol tolerance was 100-150 ml. The stress situation was:
1) A long-term husband illness which terminated lethally (7 persons);
2) An unexpected death of a husband or constant partner (5 persons);
3) Relation rupture with a husband or partner (4 persons).
The highest scores in AIMSE-scale have been obtained in the motives “solitude”, “low mood”, ‘bad physical health” and “heed deficit from children and relatives”.
The data have shown the phenomenon typical to the late onset female alcoholism in Russia. “Widow” alcoholism occurs in women in the second half of their life, when emotional bereavement situation and solitude are main provoking factors.
The current American Heart Association guidelines for acute ischemic stroke reserve Grade 1A recommendation for the use of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for patients with an Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) of ≥6.
We aim to determine the safety and efficacy of EVT for large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke patients with low ASPECTS (5 or less).
Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies appraising the outcomes of EVT for low ASPECTS ischemic stroke. A meta-analysis of proportions compared the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing EVT and those receiving best medical therapy only.
Nine studies (1,196 patients) were included. There was a trend (p = 0.11) toward a higher rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) in the EVT group (9.2%; 95% CI 6.1–13.6; I2 53.37%) compared to the medical group (5.5%; 95% CI 3.7–8.1; I2 0%). There was no difference (p = 0.41) in the pooled 90-day mortality of EVT patients (30.7%; 95% CI 21.7–41.5; I2 84.23%) and medical patients (36.6%; 95% CI 26.4–48.1; I2 76.2%). EVT patients had better (p = 0.001) 90-day outcomes, with 27.7% (95% CI 21.8–34.5; I2 62.08%) of patients attaining a modified Rankin Scale of 0–2 compared to only 3.7% (95% CI 2.3–5.9; I2 87.21%) in the medical group.
This meta-analysis demonstrates a trend in higher sICH among low ASPECTS patients undergoing EVT. Despite this, a significant proportion of this subset of patients still achieved good functional outcomes at 90 days. Randomized trials are necessary to substantiate this result as significant bias is inherent in the observational studies included in this review.
Le trouble bipolaire (TB) apparaît comme étant la pathologie psychiatrique la plus associée aux comorbidités addictives. Parmi elles les Troubles Liés à l’Utilisation de Cannabis (TLUC) sont très fréquents (entre 30 et 60 % en fonction des cohortes). Devant cette réalité clinique, comprendre l’impact des TLUC sur le cours évolutif des troubles bipolaires paraît une question importante. Notre étude porte sur 910 patients bipolaires inclus dans la cohorte des centres experts sur le TB. L’évaluation du TB ainsi que des comorbidités addictives ont été réalisés avec la Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), le fonctionnement, la sévérité et les comobidités ont été évalués à l’aide d’échelles spécifiques. Les patients souffrant de TB et d’un TLUC sont préférentiellement des hommes avec un âge de début plus jeune et une durée d’évolution plus courte que ceux sans comorbidité addictive. Le TB est plus sévère lorsqu’il est comorbide d’un TLUC. On note chez ce sous-groupe plus d’épisodes maniaques ou mixtes ainsi que plus d’épisodes psychotiques. Nous relevons plus d’épisodes thymiques (et notamment plus de cycles rapides) et d’hospitalisations sur les 12 derniers mois. Les tentatives de suicides (TS) et en particulier les TS graves ne semblent pas être corrélées à l’abus ou à la dépendance de cannabis chez les patients bipolaires. Le TLUC s’accompagne d’autres comorbidités avec plus de TDAH, plus de troubles anxieux et plus de troubles liés à l’utilisation de substances sur la vie entière (tabac et autres substances). Sur le plan dimensionnel, nous trouvons une association entre le TLUC dans le TB avec une hostilité, une impulsivité mesurées plus importantes, un fonctionnement global mesuré moins bon. À l’inverse, nous ne trouvons pas de lien entre TLUC et antécédents de traumatismes durant l’enfance (ni pour le score global du Childhood Trauma Questionnaire ni pour les sous scores).
Although boys are disproportionately affected by tics in Tourette syndrome (TS), this gender bias is attenuated in adulthood and a recent study has suggested that women may experience greater functional interference from tics than men. The authors assessed the gender distribution of adults in a tertiary University-based TS clinic population and the relative influence of gender and other variables on adult tic severity (YGTSS score) and psychosocial functioning (GAF score). We also determined retrospectively the influence of gender on change in global tic severity and overall TS impairment (YGTSS) since adolescence. Females were over-represented in relation to previously published epidemiologic surveys of both TS children and adults. Female gender was associated with a greater likelihood of tic worsening as opposed to tic improvement in adulthood; a greater likelihood of expansion as opposed to contraction of motor tic distribution; and with increased current motor tic severity and tic-related impairment. However, gender explained only a small percentage of the variance of the YGTSS global severity score and none of the variance of the GAF scale score. Psychosocial functioning was influenced most strongly by tic severity but also by a variety of comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders.
Chapter 4 is the first of four chapters that each explore conceptual aspects that are of potential interest to researchers when using language to access cognition, across a broad range of subject areas. These conceptual aspects can therefore be regarded as prominent analysis perspectives. This chapter starts by discussing two central phenomena related to cognitive orientation: attention and perspective. Both of these are systematically reflected in language use, albeit in different ways: attention underlies our choice of what we say, whereas perspective addresses how we say it. What we say will reflect what we attend to; aspects that we barely think about will rarely be reflected in our descriptions. As we formulate what we’re attending to, we can use our own point of view or adopt a different one, such as our interaction partner’s standpoint. While we don𣀙t often say explicitly which perspective we’re using, our language will reflect the underlying viewpoint in systematic ways.
Based on two syntactically annotated corpora, and within the theoretical tradition of dependency grammar, the current study investigates the quantitative differences and similarities between written and spoken French. Our findings support the assumption that spoken and written French are two realizations of one language that do not differ in the syntactic categories, but in the frequency of these categories, and also in their organization in sentence. The subjects in spoken French are mostly pronouns, whereas in written French the subjects are mostly nouns and pronouns. Spoken and written French share many syntactic relations, but with different frequencies. For instance, dislocations are more diverse and frequent in spoken French. Spoken French and written French differ in the word order of vocative nominal phrases. Finally, written French is slightly more difficult to process than spoken French.
We study the variations of mixed Hodge structures (VMHS) associated with a pencil
of equisingular hypersurfaces of degree
with only ordinary double points as singularities, as well as the variations of Hodge structures (VHS) associated with the desingularization of this family
. The notion of a set of singular points being in homologically good position is introduced, and, by requiring that the subset of nodes in (algebraic) general position is also in homologically good position, we can extend Griffiths’ description of the
-term of the Hodge filtration of the desingularization to this case, where we can also determine the possible limiting mixed Hodge structures (LMHS). The particular pencil
of quintic hypersurfaces with 100 singular double points with 86 of them in (algebraic) general position that served as the starting point for this paper is treated with particular attention.
This chapter addresses the nitty-gritty of dictionary making in the pre-digital era. Focussing on the quotation slip in lexicography, which is an attested use of a target word in context, the chapter explains the problems of editing a dictionary in an era when unique, physical paper files had to be sent back and forth across a vast country. With Avis working in Ontario and the dictionary centre located in British Columbia, and Lovell working early on from Illinois, the Dictionary of Canadian English depended on reliable postal delivery by Canada Post. Quotation slips on First Nations band names from the archives show the amount of documentation that the Dictionary of Canadianisms, the "Canadian OED", required, not without highlighting the challenges of Avis taking over Lovell's data collection and of co-editors working together despite being located in very different places. Based on extant correspondence between Avis, Douglas Leechman, Charles Crate, and Joan Hall, the editorial assistant, the genesis of the defining dictionary of Canadian English is traced in considerable detail. Etymologies of Canuck and beaver stone, the latter going back to Early Modern times, round off this more technical chapter.
The possible presence of gender-related differences in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This multicenter study aimed to investigate gender differences in BD in the largest Italian database collected to date, on behalf of the Italian Chapter of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders.
A total of 1674 patients (males: n = 714; females: n = 960) from different psychiatric departments were compared according to gender on demographic/clinical variables. Owing to the large number of variables statistically related to the dependent variable (gender) at the univariate analyses, preliminary multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A final multivariable logistic regression was then performed, considering gender as the dependent variable and statistically significant demographic/clinical characteristics as independent variables.
The results of the final multivariable logistic regression analysis with previous statistically significant demographic and clinical variables were the following: female gender was less frequently associated with employment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7, P < 0.01), lifetime single marital status (OR = 0.45, P < 0.01), and substance abuse in the last year (OR = 0.35, P < 0.01), whereas it was more frequently associated with a major number of lifetime major depressive episodes (OR = 1.78, P < 0.01) and psychiatric visits in the last year (OR = 1.38, P = 0.01).
Few significant differences were found between genders in BD, particularly for those clinical features that are associated with poor prognosis (substance abuse for males and number of depressive episodes for females). Transcultural studies are needed to identify cultural versus illness-related variables possibly explaining the different clinical presentation of BD in relation to gender.
The field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has grown considerably in recent decades and is receiving increasing recognition from health policymakers. Today, DOHaD research aims to offer a comprehensive perspective on health and disease that traces how different life experiences shape health and disease risks over the entire life course. This integrative perspective opens up distinct possibilities for improving health. At the same time, it raises questions regarding the specific social responsibilities of DOHaD as a field and about possible pathways to a socially just and scientifically robust implementation of DOHaD knowledge in society. In this article, we review the history and key characteristics of DOHaD as a field of scientific knowledge production. We argue that based on its key assumptions – that life circumstances, health and disease are closely linked on a molecular scale – DOHaD is an inherently political research field. When tracing how life environments affect health and disease, it is of utmost social and political importance to specify how DOHaD understands and frames these life environments, which aspects of life worlds are included and which excluded, and how research results are interpreted and translated into health recommendations at individual, societal and policy levels. We suggest a number of ways by which the DOHaD community can constructively and responsibly meet the demands that these inherent characteristics place on knowledge production and dissemination in the field.
The possible roles of selected B vitamins in the development and progression of sarcopenia are reviewed. Age-related declines in muscle mass and function are associated with huge and increasing costs to healthcare providers. Falls and loss of mobility and independence due to declining muscle mass/function are associated with poor clinical outcomes and their prevention and management are attractive research targets. Nutritional status appears a key modifiable and affordable intervention. There is emerging evidence of sarcopenia being the result not only of diminished anabolic activity but also of declining neurological integrity in older age, which is emerging as an important aspect of the development of age-related decline in muscle mass/function. In this connection, several B vitamins can be viewed as not only cofactors in muscle synthetic processes, but also as neurotrophic agents with involvements in both bioenergetic and trophic pathways. The B vitamins thus selected are examined with respect to their relevance to multiple aspects of neuromuscular function and evidence is considered that requirements, intakes or absorption may be altered in the elderly. In addition, the evidence base for recommended intakes (UK recommended daily allowance) is examined with particular reference to original datasets and their relevance to older individuals. It is possible that inconsistencies in the literature with respect to the nutritional management of sarcopenia may, in part at least, be the result of compromised micronutrient status in some study participants. It is suggested that in order, for example, for intervention with amino acids to be successful, underlying micronutrient deficiencies must first be addressed/eliminated.
The introduction of autonomous vehicles (autonomous vehicles) will reshape the many social interactions that are part of traffic today. In order for autonomous vehicles to become successfully integrated, the social interactions surrounding them need to be purposefully designed. To ensure success and save development efforts, design methods that explore social aspects in early design phases are needed to provide conceptual directions before committing to concrete solutions. This paper contributes an exploration of methods for addressing the social aspects of autonomous vehicles in three key areas: the vehicle as a social entity in traffic, co-experience within the vehicle and the user–vehicle relationship. The methods explored include Wizard of Oz, small-scale scenarios, design metaphors, enactment and peer-to-peer interviews. These were applied in a workshop setting with 18 participants from academia and industry. The methods provided interesting design seeds, however with differing effectiveness. The most promising methods enabled flexible idea exploration, but in a contextualized and concrete manner through tangible objects and enactment to stage future use situations. Further, combinations of methods that enable a shift between social perspectives were preferred. Wizard of Oz and small-scale scenarios were found fruitful as collaboration basis for multidisciplinary teams, by establishing a united understanding of the problem at hand.
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder often brings about profound, lasting, structural changes to one's sense of self. Aims: This study investigated self-complexity and self-aspect control in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Trauma survivors with (n = 103) and without (n = 102) PTSD completed an online questionnaire which involved the completion of a self-complexity task and measures of PTSD. Results: It was found that those with PTSD had significantly greater overall self-complexity than those without PTSD. Furthermore, when considering self-description valence, it was found that those with PTSD had significantly greater negative self-complexity than those without PTSD, but the groups did not differ in terms of positive self-complexity. Second, those with PTSD reported significantly less control over their self-aspects. Third, for those with PTSD, lower levels of self-aspect control were significantly correlated with greater negative self-complexity and lower positive self-complexity. Finally, self-aspect control mediated the relationship between self-complexity and PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: The theoretical implications for PTSD models and the clinical implications for the treatment of those with PTSD are explored.