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The ascendancy of French political power supported literary success and scientific achievement. Investigators such as Lagrange, Laplace, and Lavoisier gave mathematical and empirical support to modern chemistry, physics, and biology. In parallel, philosophical discourses on psychology led to a reinterpretation of Descartes’ formulation to focus on sensation. Condillac, Bonnet, and La Mettrie argued for the equation of mental operations and sensory input, with the result that they reduced psychology to sensation. Helvétius and Cabanis attempted to back off from such extremism by asserting the mediating role of a central ego, although both remained committed to sensory physiology. Biran and Comte recognized the consequences of reducing psychology to mere sensory physiology, but each worked out separate solutions. Biran rejected sensationalism as inadequate, suggesting an individual psychology based on consciousness and the will. In contrast Comte ultimately accepted sensationalism and dismissed psychology. For him, the individual person should properly be studied by physiology; the individual behaving in a group is the province of sociology. Comte, however, advocated a spirit of objective observation that was eventually useful to psychology. Thus, the successors to Descartes in France left psychology in a somewhat tenuous position, removed from recognition as a formal discipline.
The fateful days and weeks surrounding 6 June 1944 have been extensively documented in histories of the Second World War, but less attention has been paid to the tremendous impact of these events on the populations nearby. The Lost Paratroopers of Normandy tells the inspiring yet heartbreaking story of ordinary people who did extraordinary things in defense of liberty and freedom. On D-Day, when transport planes dropped paratroopers from the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions hopelessly off-target into marshy waters in northwestern France, the 900 villagers of Graignes welcomed them with open arms. These villagers – predominantly women – provided food, gathered intelligence, and navigated the floods to retrieve the paratroopers' equipment at great risk to themselves. When the attack by German forces on 11 June forced the overwhelmed paratroopers to withdraw, many made it to safety thanks to the help and resistance of the villagers. In this moving book, historian Stephen G. Rabe, son of one of the paratroopers, meticulously documents the forgotten lives of those who participated in this integral part of D-Day history.
This chapter argues that the French coutumiers are part of a Europe-wide vernacular legal revolution. Traditional narratives set these texts within the transition from custom to law, or as attempts to make custom more elegant in the face of a sense of inferiority to Roman law. The question of language of these early written customs has received little attention since outdated debates between Romanists and Germanists over whether custom originated in primordial Germanic tribes or was a disguised spin-off of university legal studies. However, language was key to the development of a written customary law. Vernacular writing in Europe began in earnest in the later twelfth century and proliferated afterwards. Coutumier authors chose to ride this wave of vernacular writing, rejecting the language of the universities and traditional written record in favour of the language of new histories, epics, and romance. The coutumiers were part of the new vernacular culture; it was a literature of lordship and dispute resolution in the lay courts for a lay public who lived in the vernacular.
L’objectif de cette étude était d’introduire un processus de traduction et de validation de l’Ambivalent Ageism Scale en français. L’Ambivalent Ageism scale (AAS) est la première échelle de mesure qui prend en compte l’âgisme bienveillant. Notre étude a suivi trois grandes étapes : la traduction, l’enquête et la validation. L’enquête transversale a été réalisée auprès d’étudiants de master en Sciences de la santé publique de la Faculté de santé publique de l’UClouvain lors de l’année académique 2019–2020 : sur 544 inscrits, 111 étudiants ont participé. L’échantillon était majoritairement composé de professionnels de la santé, avec un âge moyen de 31,47 ans (écart type = 7,48 ans). En conclusion, la version française de l’AAS est composée de douze items et est subdivisée en trois nouveaux facteurs : la surprotection (six items), l’infantilisation (quatre items) et le contrôle (deux items) auprès des personnes âgées. La nouvelle mesure de l’âgisme paternaliste (MAP) est une échelle de mesure simple et courte qui identifie des stéréotypes et des attitudes paternalistes à l’égard des personnes âgées.
Il est essentiel d’utiliser des tests cognitifs ayant été validés et détenant des normes de référence auprès de la population cible, puisque les réalités culturelles et linguistiques différentes entre l’échantillon de validation ou auprès duquel les normes ont été créées et la population cible peuvent affecter les résultats. Cette revue systématique vise à recenser et décrire les tests cognitifs (incluant tests, questionnaires et grilles d’observation) validés et/ou présentant des normes sur la population âgée canadienne francophone. Au total, 46 articles ont été sélectionnés. Cette revue recense 9 tests validés, 20 tests avec normes de référence et 18 tests validés et avec normes, couvrant la majorité des domaines cognitifs (fonctions mnésiques, attentionnelles, exécutives, perceptivo-motrices et langagières), excepté la cognition sociale. La quasi-totalité des échantillons ont été recrutés au Québec. Les tests relevés présentent majoritairement des indices psychométriques satisfaisants et généralement des normes considérant l’âge, le sexe et l’éducation. Cette revue systématique permettra aux cliniciens et chercheurs canadiens en vieillissement d’orienter optimalement leurs choix de tests cognitifs.
Flynn’s chapter argues for the crucial role of nineteenth-century French naturalism in the conception and evolution of Joyce’s Dubliners. Specifically, it argues that Joyce’s ambition to correct the development of his country through representing the debilitation of its capital city is modelled on Émile Zola’s aim in his naturalist, twenty-novel series Le Rougon-Macquart (1871-1893) to present and diagnose the pathologies of the Third Republic through representing several generations of a diseased family. However, in their indirection, Joyce’s stories expand upon an ambiguity intrinsic to naturalism – the subjectivity inherent in any would-be objective perception of reality – an ambiguity developed to comic effect by the second-generation naturalist, Guy de Maupassant in the story “Auprès d’un Mort” (Beside Schopenhauer’s Corpse). The chapter argues that the first story of Dubliners, “The Sisters,” is inspired by this minutely observed, disenchanted, and enigmatic story. The chapter closes by looking at the final scene of “The Dead” to argue that Joyce turns the dead end of naturalism into a test for an Irish readership.
Rabaté’s chapter traces the evolving interpretations of the revolutionary nature of Joyce’s writing. Beginning by retelling the reception of Joyce by Philippe Sollers, Jacques Lacan, and Jacques Derrida, and the turn towards historical and political readings, he argues for the theories of Jacques Rancière as allowing a synthesis of the two strands in the reception of Joyce’s work. Rabaté examines Joyce’s interest in the Italian theorist of history, Guglielmo Ferrero, tracing to Ferrero’s history Joyce’s interest in universal history, to his anti-Caesarism Joyce’s interest in the subversion of imperial figures, and to his theories of various migrant groups, and anti-Semitism specifically, Joyce’s conception of Leopold Bloom and his socialism. Rabaté moves from this notion of migration to Bakhtin’s theories of the carnivalesque and polyglossia to address the subversive humor of the Wake. Using the term “determinate negation” coined in The Dialectic of Enlightenment, by Adorno and Horkheimer, he argues that Joyce’s last work achieves a continuous dynamism through its use of principle of negation.
Some utterances are pragmatically ambiguous. For instance, Tu peux fermer la fenêtre ? (“Can you close the window?”) can be a request for information or an “indirect request” (IR) to close the window. A possible way for speakers to make it clear whether they intend these expressions as a direct or indirect speech act is to use cues such as gestures or prosody. It has been shown for English that participants’ identifications of IRs are predicted by f0 slope, mean f0, and f0 duration. However, the extent to which these findings extend to other languages remains unknown. In this article, we explore the prosodic features associated with French IRs, a language poorly documented from that perspective. We address two research questions: Are listeners’ pragmatic interpretations of French IR constructions predicted by speaker’s original intent? Do prosodic cues play the same role in French modal interrogatives as in declarative remarks? We find, first, that remarks with more positive f0 slope are more likely to be interpreted as requests, but modal interrogatives with more positive f0 slope are more likely to be taken as questions. Second, while longer remarks were more likely to be interpreted as requests, longer modal interrogatives were more likely to be interpreted as questions.
Growing up multilingually and in a multilingual social environment affects the acquisition of literacy. Many multilingual children learn to read and write in the language required by the institutional context. This is often a second, sometimes unfamiliar, language for them and it is the dominant language of the society they live in. However, these children might also learn, or be in contact with, other written languages used in their families and communities. The practices in all written languages vary, and family or community languages and literacies might be typologically close or distant from the language and literacy practices expected at school, which is the main institution for literacy acquisition. Unfolding the resources and needs of multilingual children’s literacy acquisition is at the center of this chapter. The contexts of literacy acquisition in multilingual societies is presented on three different levels: by defining literacy and literacies, by presenting different multilingual and multiliterate contexts, and by zooming in on one aspect of literacy, that is, spelling.
The quotative system is routinely adduced as the locus of rapid cross–linguistic change. Aside from the prodigious number of empirical studies investigating English quotatives, quantitatively driven demonstrations of change in the quotative system of other languages remain the exception to the rule. Observing that change in languages other than English has often been intuited from isolated or anecdotal examples, we inaugurated a large–scale study of quotative variation in European and Canadian varieties of French, supplemented by data from Brazilian Portuguese and Italian. Drawing on more than 5,500 tokens representing the targeted varieties, detailed quantitative investigation revealed that only in urban varieties of Quebec and Acadian French does the innovative être comme variant (cf. English be like) qualify as a mid–range – and locally conditioned – change in progress. In other varieties that we examined, including the French and Portuguese spoken in the global cities of Paris and São Paulo respectively, we find little compelling evidence of anything other than relatively incipient change in the quotative system. Taken together, our quantitative results are damaging to ubiquitous claims that simultaneous parallel developments are purportedly affecting the quotative system of numerous languages and point to the primordial importance of community–based speech data in ratifying linguistic change.
The present paper reports findings from a controlled large-scale (N = 1018) experimental study investigating how four different gender-fair forms influenced native French speakers’ estimated percentage of women compared to the masculine form (interpretable as generic) in 22 non-stereotyped French role nouns. The findings show that the masculine form generated lower perceived percentages of women compared to all other tested forms. In addition, gender-neutral and double forms were found equally efficient in resolving the male bias induced by the masculine form. Since the role nouns were non-stereotyped in terms of gender, these results suggest that the actual form of a role noun has indeed a strong influence on how the gender ratio of that role noun will be perceived. Moreover, the direction of the questionnaire’s response scale had a significant effect on the results, which entails methodological implications for future research. Finally, the provided ratios can be used for future studies investigating French role nouns in different gender-fair forms. In sum, our study suggests that gender-fair forms in French are an efficient tool for increasing the visibility of women, at least in nouns representing non-stereotypical activities.
The evolution of the Romance languages from Latin was significantly shaped by the numerous language contact environments, which resulted from conquest, colonization, and trade. This chapter traces the development of the largest Romance languages throughout Europe, with emphasis on the known or postulated effects of language contact. The chapter continues with an account of the spread of Spanish, Portuguese, and French to the Americas, together with the ensuing contacts with indigenous languages and languages of voluntary and involuntary immigration and the formation of Afro-Romance creole languages.
In this chapter, I provide a historical and linguistic account of the ways in which French was introduced and spread to some parts of the African continent and then diversified along a basilect-to-acrolect continuum. I show the different communicative functions it plays in the new ecologies where it evolved. In environments where major African languages are used as vehicular languages, French enjoys limited communicative functions, mainly restricted to formal interactions such as in school, public administration, and government. Conversely, in ecologies where no indigenous lingua franca had emerged, it is used in daily interactions to communicate across ethnolinguistic groups. I then address the questions of why schooling hasn’t contributed to the spread of French in the post-colonial era despite the significant increase of the school population and why it has not speciated into different regional varieties drastically different from those of the former metropoles (viz., France and Belgium). Finally, I present contrastive examples of Camfranglais/Francanglais (Cameroun) and Nouchi (Côte d’Ivoire) and argue that the latter may be the only variety that has speciated into a new one very different from that of France.
The paper focuses on the syntax and semantics of the French verbal prefix auto. It is proposed that auto is an intensifier stating that no agent other than the one specified in the clause (agent-focusing), or, in anticausative clauses, no agent (agent-denying), is responsible for the event. Syntactically, auto merges with a verbal projection, and the nature of the constituent to which it attaches determines and constrains the interpretation of the clause. The proposed analysis of auto provides support for generative approaches in which a v head introduces the external argument role, while a grammatical Voice head determines its syntactic realization.
We propose a novel approach for sentence boundary detection in text datasets in which boundaries are not evident (e.g., sentence fragments). Although detecting sentence boundaries without punctuation marks has rarely been explored in written text, current real-world textual data suffer from widespread lack of proper start/stop signaling. Herein, we annotate a dataset with linguistic information, such as parts of speech and named entity labels, to boost the sentence boundary detection task. Via experiments, we obtained F1 scores up to 98.07% using the proposed multitask neural model, including a score of 89.41% for sentences completely lacking punctuation marks. We also present an ablation study and provide a detailed analysis to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multitask learning method.
Translation was often an extended arm of writing commentaries in the Indian Ocean littoral. In the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, translating Shāfiʿī texts gave many jurists the best ways to vernacularise Islam and its laws, while for many others it provided a tool to understand the laws of the people their states had subjugated. There were similarities as much as differences among these two streams. Processes of cultural translations united the two, while vernacularisation and colonisation divided them. This chapter identifies four stages of translations that advanced the Shāfiʿī textual longue durée: two Afrasian and two European. It demonstrates their nuances in and around the Indian Ocean in an integrated perspective in which Asian, African and European fuqahā estates appear as interpreters, translators and colonisers to meet their specific needs and necessities of their audience, state, language and law. This chapter takes all the major texts we have discussed in the book to analyse the contemporaneous processes of translations in Afro-Eurasian terrains.
This article examines the rise of vernacular consequence marker ça-fait-que (CFQ), often realized as [fɛk] or [fak], at the expense of its standard counterparts donc and alors in Montreal French. The apparent-time analysis is based on a 2012 corpus of semi-directed interviews collected in Montreal. Previous studies treated the CFQ/donc/alors alternation as a purely lexical sociolinguistic variable. Our analysis shows how a vernacular variant (CFQ), initially associated with the working class and stigmatized, comes to compete, develop as a default form, and eventually crowd out forms at the other end of the social prestige scale (alors and donc). We rely on new socio-phonetic considerations to unveil a reconfiguration of the variable. The integration of the sociophonetic dimension sheds light on a complex process of diffusion, where a change from below is propelled by an additional change, but from above. Our article shows the key role played by women in both changes.
This study aims to describe the relationships between child-internal and child-external factors and the consonant accuracy of bilingual children. More specifically, the study looks at internal factors: expressive and receptive vocabulary, and external factors: language exposure and language status, of a group of 4-year-old bilingual Arabic–French children. We measured the consonant accuracy of the children by the percentage of correct consonants in a Picture-Naming Task and a Non-Word Repetition Task in each language. The results suggest a significant relationship between vocabulary and consonant accuracy. A cross-language correlation was observed between the expressive vocabulary level of the majority language (French) and the consonant accuracy of the minority language (Arabic). Also, a significant correlation was found between Arabic language exposure and Arabic consonant accuracy. Finally, consonant accuracy was significantly higher in French tasks than in Arabic, despite the individual differences of the children.
Chapter 7 presents a theory of the Progressive Form in which the PROG-operator is broken up into BE and -ING. This makes it impossible to maintain the central position attributed to the Progressive in the analysis of imperfectivity. The situation turns out to be more complex but can be accounted for compositionally by giving -ing its own semantic value. The chapter also shows how the binary approach to compositionality bridges the gap between the analysis of Slavic and non-Slavic aspect. It formalizes an aspectual theory which accounts for a wide variety of Slavic languages. It continues by focussing on the position of the aorist in rich tense systems where it has to survive marginally or where it has obtained an important position. A comparison is made with aoristic tense forms in systems that are (re-)organized binarily such as French. That opens the way for a deeper insight in the semantics of tense forms in languages where the aorist does not or no longer appears.
In this paper we present an original approach to analyze the compositionality of indefinite expressions in Romance by investigating the relevance of their syntactic distribution in relation to their meaning. This approach has the advantage of allowing us to explore the question of how syntactic structure can determine the meaning of different forms of indefiniteness. To that end, we postulate a common derivation for bare plurals, bare mass and de phrases, whereby an abstract operator de is adjoined to definite determiners and shifts entities into property-type expressions. Quantificational specificity is proposed to be derived from a syntactic structure in which weak quantifiers select for indefinite de-phrases, no matter whether de is overt at Spell-Out or not; these quantifiers turn properties into generalized quantifiers. The anti-specificity meaning of some indefinites is derived by adjoining in the syntactic structure an abstract operator alg that encodes the speaker’s epistemic state of ignorance to a quantifier encoded for specificity, and it turns a generalized quantifier into a modified generalized quantifier. The paper also brings some general predictions on how indefiniteness is expressed in Romance, as it provides extensive support from five Romance languages: Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan, French, Italian and Spanish.