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Urban sprawl has consumed large areas of countryside in Britain, and continues apace in conjunction with associated transport infrastructure. Statutory protection measures aimed at restricting the impacts of urbanisation are in place but are frequently overruled by development decisions. Important wildlife sites with rare species have been lost despite nominal protection. New roads have fragmented wildlife populations and large numbers of some animal species fall victim to traffic death. In some cases, local extinctions have been the result of road deaths. Another consequence of increased urbanisation is a rise in pollution levels, manifest on land, in the air and in the water. Plants, wild animals and humans have all suffered from increased pollution. Air pollutants kill many people annually, and the amount of plastic in marine environments has reached unparalleled proportions. All of these factors clearly relate to the numbers of people living in the UK.
The Strategic Value Framework explicates the dominant sectoral patterns of market governance in China today. Historical process tracing from sectoral origins of labor-intensive textiles and capital-intensive telecommunication in this chapter shows how Chinese state leaders intersubjectively respond to objective economic and political pressures. The perceived strategic value of national security and national technology base took root during foreign interventions and internal upheavals from the Qing dynasty to Chinese Communism and the 1978 Open Door Policy and beyond. The joined imperatives interacting with sectoral structures and organization of institutions shape the central state coordination of predominately state-owned and state controlled economic actors of the centralized governance of strategic sectors with application for national security and contribution to the national technology base, represented by telecommunications. Contrary to open economy politics, this is reenforced after China joins the World Trade Organization and enhances authoritarianism under Xi Jinping. The decentralized governance and private governance characterized by market coordination by local governments and nonstate actors and variegated property rights arrangements of nonstrategic sectors, such as textiles, reveal the limits of regime type and state capitalism explanations. These dominant sectoral patterns have given rise to Chinese-style bifurcated capitalism shaped by techno-security developmentalism in China today.
This chapter explores the consequences of patchwork forms of state authority on subnational development outcomes, primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. It presents two key mechanisms in state–society relations in the economy – commodification and investment – that have economic consequences for growth and human development. It then demonstrates the impact of the patchwork state on different measures of growth and human development, both between and within Indian states. It broadens this discussion out to consider South Asia in comparative perspective, explaining the starkly different trajectories of Pakistan and Bangladesh through the preponderance of different forms of governance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the relationship among development, violence, and the patchwork state.
This chapter explores the ways that postcolonial governments of India and Pakistan attempted to homogenize governance arrangements within their territories; this project was not entirely successful, but did lead to substantial revision of colonial categories. It begins with a discussion of the foreclosed possibility of Home Rule arrangements in which distinctions in governance practice might have persisted in practice after independence in a united India; the politics of Partition instead led to the formation of two sovereign states, but with significant variation in the power and authority of the state in each. It explores the particular politics in India and Pakistan that limited each country’s ability to undertake fundamental reform of the state and the homogenization of governance procedures, including differing perspectives among political leaders on how best to deliver security and development, and the persistence of bureaucratic structures. It also outlines the roots of a more even political geography in Bangladesh, an exception to the patchwork states of India and Pakistan. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the colonial forms of governance translates into a postcolonial typology of governance arrangements, with distinctions in state capacity and state-society relations.
Biomechanical properties of the cell wall (CW) are important for many developmental and adaptive responses in plants. Expansins were shown to mediate pH-dependent CW enlargement via a process called CW loosening. Here, we provide a brief overview of expansin occurrence in plant and non-plant species, their structure and mode of action including the role of hormone-regulated CW acidification in the control of expansin activity. We depict the historical as well as recent CW models, discuss the role of expansins in the CW biomechanics and address the developmental importance of expansin-regulated CW loosening in cell elongation and new primordia formation. We summarise the data published so far on the role of expansins in the abiotic stress response as well as the rather scarce evidence and hypotheses on the possible mechanisms underlying expansin-mediated abiotic stress resistance. Finally, we wrap it up by highlighting possible future directions in expansin research.
The strategic judicial responses to the Case Quality Assessment System (CQAS), detailed in the previous chapter, provide necessary context for understanding how the stratification of local markets for legal services in urban China can affect court reform and the decisional autonomy of judges. Variation in the development of the legal profession in different urban localities is the focus of this chapter, which also traces the major spatial and temporal shifts that have influenced lawyers’ career choices, and in turn, judicial designs in urban China. A spatially informed explanation of socio-legal processes and their structural effects begins with the higher salaries, standards, and status available to lawyers in “high-end” local legal service markets; the temporal analysis concentrates on how these dynamics were made possible by national recommitments to liberalizing reforms in the late twentieth century and then accelerated in the early twenty-first century.
Chapter Abstract: This chapter explores how to cultivate wisdom through public education. To educate for wisdom, we need to be clear about our target outcome. We suggest a wise student is one who is healthy and well-integrated physically, personally, intellectually and socially—what Rogers called “a fully functioning person.” Educational programs need specific indicators of progress, so we propose six connections to being, feeling, and thinking. These connections are established and strengthened by curricula that include: studying inspirational exemplars; teaching strategies to become like those exemplars (e.g., journaling); teaching concepts related to wisdom (e.g., critical thinking); and building real and virtual educational environments. Although the best teachers already teach for wisdom, many (perhaps most) teachers in public education do not. Making teaching for wisdom more common requires changes to current teacher education, student assessment and educational policy.
Patchwork States argues that the subnational politics of conflict and competition in South Asian countries have roots in the history of uneven state formation under colonial rule. Colonial India contained a complex landscape of different governance arrangements and state-society relations. After independence, postcolonial governments revised colonial governance institutions, but only with partial success. The book argues that contemporary India and Pakistan can be usefully understood as patchwork states, with enduring differences in state capacity and state-society relations within their national territories. The complex nature of territorial governance in these countries shapes patterns of political violence, including riots and rebellions, as well as variations in electoral competition and development across the political geography of the Indian subcontinent. By bridging past and present, this book can transform our understanding of both the legacies of colonial rule and the historical roots of violent politics, in South Asia and beyond.
Recent research in cognitive development has supported and built on Piaget’s idea that children’s active engagement with the physical and social world is a crucial component to their learning. In this chapter we offer an overview of the latest results from developmental, cognitive, computational, and educational research on children’s exploration and information search. In particular, we examine the various forms active learning can take across the life span. We start by describing the development of increasingly sophisticated forms of information solicitation in infants and preverbal children, and then draw a developmental trajectory of the effectiveness of children’s exploratory and sampling strategies as well as of their question asking. In doing so, we touch upon three main themes: Children’s sensitivity to environmental inputs, their competence as active learners, and their adaptiveness in tailoring their active learning strategies to different environmental structures. To conclude, we discuss some of the most pressing open questions and promising avenues for future developmental research on active learning and information search.
Bowlby proposed that the child forms a working model of the relationship between his/herself and caregivers. Where there is abuse, the working model represents this. In response, the child can learn to perform aggressive behaviour. A common feature of serial lust killers is that they experienced humiliation in their early lives. Early sources of abuse include physical, psychological and sexual. Later sources of trauma include taunting over sexual orientation and failure to find a girlfriend. Somewhat similar to the notion of ‘working model’ is that of a ‘love map’. The love map can be corrupted so that violence becomes encoded. The process of sensory preconditioning is under the control of dopamine and is responsible for forming links between an aversive emotion and sexual desire. In some cases, a traumatic memory can be revised to take on positive qualities and underlie lust killing. The Old Brain matures faster than the New Brain.
The chapter looks at two heterosexual killers who made extensive confessions of their crimes: Gerald Stano and Gary Ridgway. It looks at their similarities and differences. Both had unhappy childhoods with sibling rivalry and the experience of bullying and taunting, and both felt inferior and failures in life. Each killer revealed a fusion of sex and violence, and showed evidence of stress exacerbating their toxic behaviour, both chronically and acutely (e.g. mocking remarks by a sex worker). As a difference, Stano but not Ridgway was adopted. Stano’s physical condition was very poor at the time of adoption, which might have been associated with brain damage. Ridgeway but not Stano was married and had secure employment. Stano displayed considerable sexual envy towards courting couples. The two killers either exclusively (Ridgway) or commonly (Stano) targeted sex workers. Each showed non-lethal choking of a regular partner.
Some sex-linked killers feel a deep resentment against their mothers. This is often for their treatment in the family, as in harsh punishment and/or favouring siblings. In turn, the resentment fuels a corresponding hatred against women. John Crutchley was a suspect in a number of lust killings, but ws never found guilty. However, his sexual turn on was to abduct women and remove blood from them. Henry Lee Lucas exemplifies a particularly toxic development creating the circumstances for killing. Bobby Joe Long suffered damage to his head, which might well have involved brain damage and harmed his development. He appears to have developed a hatred towards women as a result of what he perceived to be his mother’s immorality. Carroll Edward ('Eddie') Cole shows a similarly based resentment towards his mother. Articulate heterosexual killer Edmund Kemper was harshly treated in his family, particularly by his mother.
In a post-9/11 environment, the Department for International Development (DFID) shifted its strategic focus towards an integrationist approach that aligned mainstream development programming with the national security agenda. A key part of those reforms was integrating counterterrorism – directly and indirectly – into DFID's portfolio. Using a feminist institutionalist approach, I examine how discourses about women, development, security, and counterterrorism are reproduced through a ‘development-security-counterterrorism nexus’. Within the nexus, DFID represents a key site for the production, reproduction, and evolution of gendered discursive practices1 about women. I argue that institutional evolution is possible through a process of discursive evolution where certain discourses become more or less engrained or ‘sedimented’2 depending on the presence of alternative ideas and knowledges. The central research question asks how did gender-sensitive development work evolve after 9/11 and what factors influenced and shaped this evolution? The main findings were that as counterterrorism aims, objectives, and methods became more emphasised in UK development programming, a sense of institutional incoherence and poor strategic direction adversely affected how gender-sensitive programming was designed and implemented. Furthermore, I conclude that gendered development policy was largely based on assumptions rather than evidence, which negatively impacted how programmes were implemented.
Dignity therapy (DT) is a brief psychotherapeutic intervention with beneficial effects in the end-of-life experience. Since it provides a continuing bond between the bereaved and their loved ones, we speculated that it could be offered as a novel bereavement intervention following the patient's death. We aimed to develop, translate, and validate the Posthumous DT Schedule of Questions (p-DT-SQ), for administration with bereaved relatives or friends.
The original DT-SQ was adapted for application with bereaved relatives or friends. It was translated and back-translated to European Portuguese and revised by an expert committee. Content validity was assessed by the Content Validity Coefficient (CVC). The instrument was tested in a sample of 50 individuals from a large Senior Residence in Lisbon (10 elderly people and 40 healthcare professionals), who assessed face validity.
The p-DT-SQ showed very good CVC (0.94) and face validity: it was considered clear, easy to understand, reasonable in length, and not difficult to answer. Participants felt comfortable answering the p-DT-SQ and felt it could positively affect the way themselves or others would remember their loved ones, allowing an understanding of the deceased's concerns, interests, and values.
Significance of results
We created and validated an adapted version of the DT-SQ to be used posthumously by bereaved family and friends. The European Portuguese version of the p-DT-SQ is clear, comprehensible, and aligned with the fundamentals of DT. While our data suggest its beneficial effects for those who are bereft, future research is needed to examine the impact of p-DT-SQ for those who are grieving.
The chapter examines institutional investor stewardship in Malaysia from three perspectives: the code, its context and challenges. It outlines the history and background of Malaysian institutional investor stewardship, culminating in the Malaysian Code for Institutional Investors (MCII). The chapter then analyses the MCII stewardship principles and its oversight in detail. A subsequent section of the chapter appraises the Malaysian stewardship journey by evaluating the adoption of the MCII by asset owners and asset managers through a review of their compliance statements. The chapter further sets out the broader context which these institutional investors operate within. It highlights the prevalence of Government Linked Investment Companies (GLICs) and Government Linked Companies (GLCs), which are arguably a result of Malaysia’s characterisation as an emerging economy and a developmental state. The chapter notes that the impetus for the MCII was driven by industry in accordance with the Corporate Governance Blueprint. However, what constitutes industry in Malaysia is inextricably linked to the state via its ownership and control of GLICs and GLCs. Therefore, apart from concerns about the quality of stewardship statements and ownership engagement, structural issues such as the breadth and depth of state ownership and control of institutional investors challenge effective stewardship practice.
This article investigates the history of economic relations between Iran and the Parsi community of India during the Reza Shah period. Encouraged by the policies of the new Pahlavi state, Parsi entrepreneurs began a serious effort to investigate the possibilities of economic investment in Iran. The article details three Parsi economic missions that were conducted in Iran during this period, and analyzes their assessments of Iran's potential for development in fields such as energy, textile manufacturing, commercial agriculture, and modern transportation systems. As the article argues, while these Parsi-led initiatives were part of a larger history of renewed engagement between Parsis and Iranians, for a variety of political and economic reasons, by the outbreak of World War II few of the Parsi plans for investment in Iran had come to fruition. While remaining largely forestalled in the interwar period, the article also suggests that Parsi economic assessments foreshadowed many of the planning strategies carried out in Iran's post–World War II history of economic development.
In the first chapter of this book, I contrasted the first-order subjective experience of understanding, the “A ha!” experience of making sense, with the objective valid ascription of understanding that had long been the concern of analytical philosophers. I sought to bring the first-person experience and the third-person ascription together into one account of understanding.
This chapter examines the effectiveness of Chinese development finance. At the recipient-country level, we test the impact of Chinese development finance on economic growth, infant mortality, and the spatial concentration of economic activity. We then move below the country level and investigate the economic development effects of China’s development finance at the subnational level using luminosity data at fine spatial resolution (in addition to infant mortality and spatial concentration). We disentangle differences between Chinese aid and debt and compare these effects to those of World Bank funding. In addition, this chapter analyzes whether the motivational forces that shape the provision of Chinese development finance affect downstream development outcomes in recipient countries and regions. The empirical evidence presented in the chapter shows that, irrespective of political bias, Chinese aid and debt improve socio- economic outcomes at both national and subnational scales. However, these impacts vary significantly across jurisdictions. We also find that socio-economic impacts of Chinese development projects are comparable, if not superior, to those generated by the World Bank.
Already as infants humans are more fearful than our closest living primate relatives, the chimpanzees. Yet heightened fearfulness is mostly considered maladaptive, as it is thought to increase the risk of developing anxiety and depression. How can this human fear paradox be explained? The fearful ape hypothesis presented herein stipulates that, in the context of cooperative caregiving and provisioning unique to human great ape group life, heightened fearfulness was adaptive. This is because from early in ontogeny fearfulness expressed and perceived enhanced care-based responding and provisioning from, while concurrently increasing cooperation with, mothers and others. This explanation is based on a synthesis of existing research with human infants and children, demonstrating a link between fearfulness, greater sensitivity to and accuracy in detecting fear in others, and enhanced levels of cooperative behaviors. These insights critically advance current evolutionary theories of human cooperation by adding an early-developing affective component to the human cooperative makeup. Moreover, the current proposal has important cultural, societal and health implications, as it challenges the predominant view in WEIRD societies that commonly construe fearfulness as a maladaptive trait, potentially ignoring its evolutionary adaptive functions.
The significance of the use of floral diagrams is discussed in this chapter, including different types as well as its advantages and limitations. Floral diagrams can catch the diversity of flowers, including accessory structures and floral heteromorphism. The importance of floral development, the drive of pollination and evolutionary developmental genetics is shown in the shaping of floral structures and as a reflection of floral evolution.