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To evaluate outcomes in patients with Turner Syndrome, especially those with cardiac conditions, compared to those without Turner syndrome.
Retrospective cohort study utilising hospitalisation data from 2006 to 2012. Conditional logistic regression models are used to analyse outcomes of interest: all-cause mortality, increased length of stay, and discharge to home.
We identified 2978 women with Turner syndrome, matched to 11,912 controls by primary diagnosis.
Patients with Turner syndrome were more likely to experience inpatient mortality (odds ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.02–2.02, p = 0.04) and increased length of stay (OR 1.31, CI 1.18–1.46, p = 0.03) than primary diagnosis matched controls, after adjusting for age, race, insurance status, and Charlson comorbidity index. Patients with Turner syndrome were 32% less likely to be discharged to home (OR 0.68, CI 0.60–0.78, p < 0.001). When restricting the sample of patients to those admitted with a cardiac diagnosis, the likelihood of mortality (OR 3.10, CI 1.27–7.57, p = 0.01) and prolonged length of stay (OR 1.42, CI 1.03–1.95, p = 0.03) further increased, while the likelihood of discharge to home further decreased (OR 0.55, CI 0.38–0.80, p = 0.001) in Turner syndrome compared to primary diagnosis matched controls. Specifically, patients with congenital heart disease were more likely to have prolonged length of stay (OR: 1.53, CI 1.18–2.00, p = 0.002), but not increased mortality or decreased discharge to home.
Hospitalised women with Turner syndrome carry a higher risk of adverse outcomes even when presenting otherwise similarly as controls, an important consideration for those treating them in these settings.
Psychiatric disorders overlap substantially at the genetic level, with family-based methods long pointing toward transdiagnostic risk pathways. Psychiatric genomics has progressed rapidly in the last decade, shedding light on the biological makeup of cross-disorder risk at multiple levels of analysis. Over a hundred genetic variants have been identified that affect multiple disorders, with many more to be uncovered as sample sizes continue to grow. Cross-disorder mechanistic studies build on these findings to cluster transdiagnostic variants into meaningful categories, including in what tissues or when in development these variants are expressed. At the upper-most level, methods have been developed to estimate the overall shared genetic signal across pairs of traits (i.e. single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations) and subsequently model these relationships to identify overarching, genomic risk factors. These factors can subsequently be associated with external traits (e.g. functional imaging phenotypes) to begin to understand the makeup of these transdiagnostic risk factors. As psychiatric genomic efforts continue to expand, we can begin to gain even greater insight by including more fine-grained phenotypes (i.e. symptom-level data) and explicitly considering the environment. The culmination of these efforts will help to inform bottom-up revisions of our current nosology.
Depression in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is highly prevalent and associated with poor outcomes; it has become increasingly recognised and adopted in national and international guidelines for psychosis. Using a 26-item questionnaire, this study aimed to explore if this shift has led to greater recognition among UK psychiatrists, and more effective management of depression in FEP.
Of the 297 respondents, 54.4% observed depression occurring in chronic psychosis, with the least number of respondents (17.7%) identifying depression occurring frequently during FEP. Although there was reasonable agreement in the use of antidepressants as a first-line treatment for depression (70% prescribing antidepressants), there was uncertainty around assessing depression and delineating from psychosis symptoms, and particularly negative symptoms.
Evidence-based treatments for comorbid depression in psychosis will lead to clearer national guidelines, allowing for optimal management of depression in early psychosis, potentially leading to improved outcomes for these individuals.
An article in BJPsych Advances on the topic of dissociative identity disorder gave rise to a number of linked commentaries and a vigorous eLetter debate. This commentary, by the Editor, points out the journal's role as a CPD journal and clarifies its position on the publication of reviews and opinion pieces on controversial topics.
To evaluate otorhinolaryngological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and the time required for their resolution.
A prospective analysis was conducted of coronavirus disease 2019 patients presenting from 1 April 2020 to 30 July 2020. The otorhinolaryngological manifestations were evaluated based on patient history. The time required for symptom resolution was evaluated separately for intensive care unit and non-intensive care unit patients.
A total of 600 patients were included in the study; 13.3 per cent required the intensive care unit and 2.2 per cent expired. The otorhinolaryngological manifestations were: sore throat (88 per cent), fever (78.8 per cent), anosmia or hyposmia (63.6 per cent), ageusia or hypogeusia (63.5 per cent), rhinorrhoea (51.3 per cent), nasal obstruction (33.5 per cent), sneezing (30.3 per cent), and breathing difficulty (18.6 per cent). The time required for symptom resolution was longest for breathing difficulty (23.6 days for intensive care unit and 8.2 days for non-intensive care unit patients).
Otorhinolaryngological symptoms are one of the main presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 infection. The increased prevalence of medical co-morbidities in patients requiring intensive care unit and in deceased patients is also highlighted.
The distressing reality that mental healthcare for children and young people in acute trust settings in the UK is woefully underprovided is not news. But with acute trust debts being written off, hospital trusts and commissioners of services have a timely opportunity to address this age- and condition-based discrimination.
Delivering a just service for under-18s depends on attitude, resources and adequate knowledge of the tasks involved. This article aims to describe the current landscape, summarise the arguments for better integrating mental healthcare into physical healthcare settings, articulate the tasks involved and the challenges for commissioning and providing, and finally share examples of current service models across the country.
Ultimately, commissioning and provider choices will be constrained by resource pressures, but this article aims to underscore why commissioning and providing a portmanteau ‘no wrong door’ hospital service for children, young people and families is worth the headache of thinking outside old commissioning and provider boxes.
During psychotherapy some patients experience large symptom improvements between sessions, termed sudden gains. Most commonly, sudden gains are observed during treatment for depression (40–50% of participants), but these are occasionally also observed in treatment for anxiety (15–20%). This study investigated the impact of comorbid depression on sudden gains in a primary anxiety sample. It was hypothesised that sudden gains would occur more frequently in participants with anxiety and comorbid depression than anxiety-only participants. The sample consisted of 58 adults who participated in a 12-week transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural therapy (tCBT) programme. Sudden gains were more frequent in the comorbid depression group than in the anxiety-only group. Sudden gains may be predominantly a function of depressive disorders, which supports the higher rates seen in depressive disorders compared with anxiety disorders. Future research should endeavour to replicate these findings, as this was the first study designed to specifically investigate comorbidity in sudden gains.
Investigating obstetric near misses (life-threatening obstetric complications) provides crucial information to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity.
To investigate the rate and type of obstetric near misses among women with serious mental illness (SMI).
We conducted a historical cohort study, using de-identified electronic mental health records linked with maternity data from Hospital Episode Statistics. The English Maternal Morbidity Outcome Indicator was used to identify obstetric near misses at the time of delivery in two cohorts: (1) exposed cohort – all women with a live or still birth in 2007–2016, and a history of secondary mental healthcare before delivery in south-east London (n = 13 570); (2) unexposed cohort – all women with a live or still birth in 2007–2016, resident within south-east London, with no history of mental healthcare before delivery (n = 223 274).
The rate of obstetric near misses was 884.3/100 000 (95% CI 733.2–1057.4) maternities in the exposed group compared with 575.1/100 000 (95% CI 544.0–607.4) maternities in the unexposed group (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.3–2.0, P < 0.001). Highest risks were for acute renal failure (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.8, P = 0.022); cardiac arrest, failure or infarction (adjusted odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8, P = 0.028); and obstetric embolism (adjusted odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 1.6–5.8, P < 0.001).
Findings emphasise the importance of integrated physical and mental healthcare before and during pregnancy for women with SMI.
Mental health (MH) service users have increased prevalence of chronic physical conditions such as cardio-respiratory diseases and diabetes. Potentially Preventable Hospitalisations (PPH) for physical health conditions are an indicator of health service access, integration and effectiveness, and are elevated in long term studies of people with MH conditions. We aimed to examine whether PPH rates were elevated in MH service users over a 12-month follow-up period more suitable for routine health indicator reporting. We also examined whether MH service users had increased PPH rates at a younger age, potentially reflecting the younger onset of chronic physical conditions.
A population-wide data linkage in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, population 7.8 million. PPH rates in 178 009 people using community MH services in 2016–2017 were compared to population rates. Primary outcomes were crude and age- and disadvantage-standardised annual PPH episode rate (episodes per 100 000 population), PPH day rate (hospital days per 100 000) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (AIRR).
MH service users had higher rates of PPH admission (AIRR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6) and a larger number of hospital days (AIRR 5.2, 95% CI 5.2–5.3) than other NSW residents due to increased likelihood of admission, more admissions per person and longer length of stay. Increases were greatest for vaccine-preventable conditions (AIRR 4.7, 95% CI 4.5–5.0), and chronic conditions (AIRR 3.7, 95% CI 3.6–3.7). The highest number of admissions and relative risks were for respiratory and metabolic conditions, including chronic obstructive airways disease (AIRR 5.8, 95% CI 5.5–6.0) and diabetic complications (AIRR 5.4, 95% CI 5.1–5.8). One-quarter of excess potentially preventable bed days in MH service users were due to vaccine-related conditions, including vaccine-preventable respiratory illness. Age-related increases in risk occurred earlier in MH service users, particularly for chronic and vaccine-preventable conditions. PPH rates in MH service users aged 20–29 were similar to population rates of people aged 60 and over. These substantial differences were not explained by socio-economic disadvantage.
PPHs for physical health conditions are substantially increased in people with MH conditions. Short term (12-month) PPH rates may be a useful lead indicator of increased physical morbidity and less accessible, integrated or effective health care. High hospitalisation rates for vaccine-preventable respiratory infections and hepatitis underline the importance of vaccination in MH service users and suggests potential benefits of prioritising this group for COVID-19 vaccination.
Psychiatric disorders are very common in patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, comorbidity with Bipolar Spectrum disorders is understudied. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical correlates of PD associated with Bipolar Spectrum disorders.
One hundred PD patients were screened for psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive profile, motor, and non-motor symptoms. The sample was divided into three groups: PD-patients with Bipolar Spectrum disorders (bipolar disorder type I, type II, and spontaneous or induced hypomania; N = 32), PD-patients with others psychiatric comorbidities (N = 39), PD-patients without psychiatric comorbidities (N = 29). Clinical features were compared among the groups using analysis of variance and chi-square test. A logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between Bipolar Spectrum disorders and early onset of PD (≤50 years) controlling for lifetime antipsychotic use.
In comparison with PD patients with and without other psychiatric comorbidity, subjects affected by Bipolar Spectrum disorders were younger, showed more frequently an early onset PD, reported more involuntary movements and a higher rate of impulse control disorders and compulsive behaviors. No differences were observed in indexes of exposure to dopamine agonist treatments. The early onset of PD was predicted by Bipolar Spectrum comorbidity, independently from lifetime antipsychotic use.
Bipolar Spectrum disorders are common in early onset PD. The presence of bipolar comorbidity could identify a particular subtype of PD, showing higher rates of neurological and psychiatric complications and deserving further investigation.
Meta-analyses show efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in terms of relapse prevention and depressive symptom reduction in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most studies have been conducted in controlled research settings.
We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of MBCT in patients with MDD presenting in real-world clinical practice. Moreover, we assessed whether guideline recommendations for MBCT allocation in regard to recurrence and remission status of MDD hold in clinical practice.
This study assessed a naturalistic cohort of patients with (recurrent) MDD, either current or in remission (n = 765), who received MBCT in a university hospital out-patient clinic in The Netherlands. Outcome measures were self-reported depressive symptoms, worry, mindfulness skills and self-compassion. Predictors were MDD recurrence and remission status, and clinical and sociodemographic variables. Outcome and predictor analyses were conducted with linear regression.
MBCT adherence was high (94%). Patients with a lower level of education had a higher chance of non-adherence. Attending more sessions positively influenced improvement in depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms significantly reduced from pre- to post-MBCT (Δ mean = 7.7, 95%CI = 7.0–8.5, Cohen's d = 0.75). Improvement of depressive symptoms was independent from MDD recurrence and remission status. Unemployed patients showed less favourable outcomes. Worry, mindfulness skills and self-compassion all significantly improved. These improvements were related to changes in depressive symptoms.
Previous efficacy results in controlled research settings are maintained in clinical practice. Results illustrate that MBCT is effective in routine clinical practice for patients suffering from MDD, irrespective of MDD recurrence and remission status.
Some people diagnosed with schizophrenia are more prone to committing acts of serious violence, especially in the presence of drug or alcohol misuse. The rarity of homicide has meant that no large controlled study has previously examined clinical risk factors.
To determine the risk factors for homicide by males diagnosed with schizophrenia.
A national nested case–control study of all previously admitted males diagnosed with schizophrenia, convicted of homicide between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of homicide in this population.
During the observation period 160 male patients with schizophrenia and a history of psychiatric admission were convicted of homicide, and they were matched with 542 male control patients who had not been convicted of homicide. Patients who committed homicide were more likely to have a history of violence and comorbid personality disorder or drug misuse. They were more likely to have missed their last contact with services prior to the offence and to have been non-adherent with their treatment plan. Almost all (94%) of homicides were committed by patients who had a history of alcohol or drug misuse and/or who were not in receipt of planned treatment.
In England and Wales, homicides by patients with schizophrenia without substance misuse and in receipt of planned care are exceptionally rare. To prevent serious violence, mental health services should focus on drug and alcohol misuse, treatment adherence and maintaining contact with services.
Comorbid physical conditions may be more common in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than other people.
To identify what is and what is not known about comorbid physical conditions in people with ASD.
We undertook an umbrella systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on comorbid physical conditions in people with ASD. Five databases were searched. There were strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We undertook double reviewing for eligibility, systematic data extraction and quality assessment. Prospective PROSPERO registration: CRD42015020896.
In total, 24 of 5552 retrieved articles were included, 15 on children, 1 on adults, and 8 both on children and adults. Although the quality of included reviews was good, most reported several limitations in the studies they included and considerable heterogeneity. Comorbid physical conditions are common, and some are more prevalent than in the general population: sleep problems, epilepsy, sensory impairments, atopy, autoimmune disorders and obesity. Asthma is not. However, there are substantial gaps in the evidence base. Fewer studies have been undertaken on other conditions and some findings are inconsistent.
Comorbid physical conditions occur more commonly in people with ASD, but the evidence base is slim and more research is needed. Some comorbidities compound care if clinicians are unaware, for example sensory impairments, given the communication needs of people with ASD. Others, such as obesity, can lead to an array of other conditions, disadvantages and early mortality. It is essential that potentially modifiable physical conditions are identified to ensure people with ASD achieve their best outcomes. Heightening clinicians’ awareness is important to aid in assessments and differential diagnoses, and to improve healthcare.
Psychotherapy research aims to investigate predictors and moderators of treatment outcome, but there are few consistent findings. This study aimed to investigate cytokines in patients undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders and whether the level of cytokines moderated the treatment outcome. Thirty-seven patients with comorbid and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders were investigated using multilevel modelling. Serum cytokine levels were measured three times: pretreatment, in the middle of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Anxiety and metacognitions were measured weekly throughout treatment by self-report. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change during therapy or were not related to the level of anxiety. Metacognitive beliefs predicted anxiety, but the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety was not moderated by cytokines. Limitations of the study include that the patients were not fasting at blood sampling, and we did not assess body mass index, which may affect cytokine levels. The lack of significance for cytokines as a predictor or moderator may be due to a lack of power for testing moderation hypotheses, a problem associated with many psychotherapy studies. Cytokines did not predict the outcome in the treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders in our sample. Furthermore, cytokines did not moderate the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety.
Physical health outcomes in severe mental illness are worse than in the general population. Routine physical health check completion in this group is poor.
To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the impact of point of care (POC) blood testing on physical health check completion in community mental health services.
In a prospective cohort design, we equipped an early intervention service (EIS) and a community mental health team (CMHT) with a POC blood testing device for 6 months. We compared rates of blood test and full physical health check completion in the intervention teams with a matched EIS and CMHT, historically and during the intervention. We explored attitudes to POC testing using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with patients and clinicians.
Although the CMHT scarcely used the POC device and saw no change in outcomes, direct comparison of testing rates in the intervention period showed increased physical health check completion in the EIS with the device (rate ratio RR = 5.18; 95% CI 2.54–12.44; P < 0.001) compared with usual care. The rate was consistent with the EIS's increasing rate of testing over time (RR = 0.45; 95% 0.09–2.08; P = 0.32). Similar trends were seen in blood test completion. POC testing was acceptable to patients but clinicians reported usability, provision and impact on the therapeutic relationship as barriers to uptake.
POC testing was beneficial and acceptable to patients and may increase physical health check uptake. Further research, accounting for clinician barriers, is needed to evaluate its clinical and cost-effectiveness.
To investigate if depression risk modifies the association between frailty and mortality in older adults.
Ongoing cohort study.
Albacete city, Spain
Eight hundred subjects, 58.8% women, over 70 years of age from the Frailty and Dependence in Albacete (FRADEA) study.
Frailty phenotype, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), comorbidity, disability, and drug use were collected at baseline. Six groups were categorized: (G1: non-frail/no depression risk; G2: non-frail/depression risk; G3: prefrail/no depression risk; G4: prefrail/depression risk; G5: frail/no depression risk; and G6: frail/depression risk). Mean follow-up was 2542 days (SD 1006). GDS was also analyzed as a continuous variable. The association between frailty and depression risk with 10-year mortality was analyzed.
Mean age was 78.5 years. Non-frail was 24.5%, prefrail 56.3%, frail 19.3%, and 33.5% at depression risk. Mean GDS score was 3.7 (SD 3.2), increasing with the number of frailty criteria (p < 0.001). Ten-year mortality rate was 44.9%. Mortality was 21.4% for the non-frail, 45.6% for the prefrail, and 72.7% for the frail participants, 56% for those with depression risk, and 39.3% for those without depression risk. Mean survival times for groups G1 to G6 were, respectively, 3390, 3437, 2897, 2554, 1887, and 1931 days. Adjusted mortality risk was higher for groups G3 (HR 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–3.1), G4 (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.8), G5 (HR 3.8; 95% CI 2.4–6.1), and G6 (HR 4.0; 95% CI 2.6–6.2), compared with G1 (p < 0.001). Interaction was found between frailty and depression risk, although they were independently associated with mortality.
Depression risk increases mortality risk in prefrail older adults but not in non-frail and frail ones. Depression should be monitored in these older adults to optimize health outcomes. Factors modulating the relationship between frailty and depression should be explored in future studies.
We propose that discussions of benzodiazepines in the current psychiatric literature have become negatively biased and have strayed from the scientific evidence base. We advocate returning to the evidence in discussing benzodiazepines and adhering to clear definitions and conceptual rigour in commentary about them.
Clinical intuition suggests that personality disorders hinder the treatment of depression, but research findings are mixed. One reason for this might be the way in which current assessment measures conflate general aspects of personality disorders, such as overall severity, with specific aspects, such as stylistic tendencies. The goal of this study was to clarify the unique contributions of the general and specific aspects of personality disorders to depression outcomes.
Patients admitted to the Menninger Clinic, Houston, between 2012 and 2015 (N = 2352) were followed over a 6–8-week course of multimodal inpatient treatment. Personality disorder symptoms were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition Axis II Personality Screening Questionnaire at admission, and depression severity was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 every fortnight. General and specific personality disorder factors estimated with a confirmatory bifactor model were used to predict latent growth curves of depression scores in a structural equation model.
The general factor predicted higher initial depression scores but not different rates of change. By contrast, the specific borderline factor predicted slower rates of decline in depression scores, while the specific antisocial factor predicted a U shaped pattern of change.
Personality disorder symptoms are best represented by a general factor that reflects overall personality disorder severity, and specific factors that reflect unique personality styles. The general factor predicts overall depression severity while specific factors predict poorer prognosis which may be masked in prior studies that do not separate the two.
Although long-term outcomes of girls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are understudied, high risk for adolescent and young-adult self-harm is salient. We present data on predictors and mediators of such risk, highlighting a recent dual-process model involving trait impulsivity plus family- and peer-related contributors. We conclude with recommendations for assessment and preventive intervention.
Atypical communication characteristics (ACCs), such as speech delay, odd pitch, and pragmatic difficulties, are common features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as are the symptoms of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Using a simple retrospective method, this study aimed to better understand the relation and stability of ACCs with a broad range of psychiatric symptoms among large, well-characterized samples of clinic-referred children and adolescents with and without ASD. Youth with ASD had higher rates and a more variable pattern of developmental change in ACCs than the non-ASD diagnostic group. Latent class analysis yielded three ACC stability subgroups within ASD: Stable ACCs, Mostly Current-Only ACCs, and Little Professors. Subgroups exhibited differences in severity of ASD symptomatology, co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, and other correlates. Our findings provide support for the clinical utility of characterizing caregiver-perceived changes in ACCs in identifying children at risk for co-occurring psychopathology and other clinically relevant variables.