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l-carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
Nanocrystalline and nanolaminated materials show enhanced radiation tolerance compared with their coarse-grained counterparts, since grain boundaries and layer interfaces act as effective defect sinks. Although the effects of layer interface and layer thickness on radiation tolerance of crystalline nanolaminates have been systematically studied, radiation response of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates is rarely investigated. In this study, we show that irradiation can lead to formation of nanocrystals and nanotwins in amorphous CuNb layers in Cu/amorphous-CuNb nanolaminates. Substantial element segregation is observed in amorphous CuNb layers after irradiation. In Cu layers, both stationary and migrating grain boundaries effectively interact with defects. Furthermore, there is a clear size effect on irradiation-induced crystallization and grain coarsening. In situ studies also show that crystalline/amorphous interfaces can effectively absorb defects without drastic microstructural change, and defect absorption by grain boundary and crystalline/amorphous interface is compared and discussed. Our results show that tailoring layer thickness can enhance radiation tolerance of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates and can provide insights for constructing crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates under radiation environment.
Serrated flow is one important characteristic of shear bands through which metallic glasses (MGs) accommodate plastic deformation. Serrated flow can be affected by intrinsic properties such as elastic modulus or extrinsic variables such as strain rate. However, the influences of pre-deformation and interfaces on serrated flow are less well understood. In this study, by using in situ micropillar compression inside a scanning electron microscope, we show that pre-deformation (consisting of cyclic loading/unloading below the nominal elastic limit) suppresses serrated flows in amorphous-CuNb but enhances serrated flows in amorphous-CuZr at both high and low strain rates. Moreover, layer interfaces in Cu/amorphous-CuNb multilayers mitigate serrated flows, and the average stress drop and strain duration associated with shear banding process can be tailored. Strain accommodation and energy dissipation via shear banding have clear impact on serrated flows. This study provides new perspectives on tailoring serrated flows and enhancing plastic deformation of MGs.
AlMg alloys have widespread industrial applications. Grain refinement techniques have been frequently used to achieve high strength in these alloys. Here, we report on the fabrication of epitaxial co-sputtered AlMg thin films with high-density growth twins. The microstructure evolution with varying Mg composition has been characterized. Nanoindentation and in-situ micropillar compression tests show that the strength of AlMg alloys increases with increasing Mg composition. The flow stress of epitaxial nanotwinned Al–10 at.% Mg thin film exceeds 800 MPa. The modified Hall–Petch plots incorporating the solid solution strengthening effect suggest that, compared to high angle grain boundaries, incoherent twin boundaries are equivalent barriers to the transmission of dislocations in nanotwinned AlMg alloys.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Dairy cows with type II ketosis display hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia, but the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of lipid metabolism by insulin in cow hepatocytes. In vitro, cow hepatocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nm insulin in the presence or absence of AICAR (an AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) activator). The results showed that insulin decreased AMPKα phosphorylation. This inactivation of AMPKα increased the gene and protein expression levels of carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, AMPKα inactivation decreased the gene and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), which upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes, thereby increasing lipid oxidation. In addition, insulin decreased the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly. Consequently, triglyceride content was significantly increased in insulin treated hepatocytes. Activation of AMPKα induced by AICAR could reverse the effect of insulin on PPARα, SREBP-1c, and ChREBP, thereby decreasing triglyceride content. These results indicate that insulin inhibits the AMPKα signaling pathway to increase lipid synthesis and decrease lipid oxidation and VLDL assembly in cow hepatocytes, thereby inducing TG accumulation. This mechanism could partly explain the causal relationship between hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia in dairy cows with type II ketosis.
Shot-peened CM400 maraging steel was used to study the mechanism of enhanced notch fatigue properties of ultra-high strength materials. After shot peening, the specimen surface became rougher, but the transversal machining traces were reduced. The yield strength was slightly improved while the ultimate tensile strength and hardness maintained constant; as a result, the fatigue limit was promoted by about 1.5 times. The nucleated sites of the fatigue fracture were partly changed from the surface to subsurface/interior of the specimen. To further analyze the influencing factors of fatigue properties, the fatigue damage process may be resolved to two aspects: (a) fatigue damage rate affected by shear deformation and (b) fatigue damage tolerance controlled by the dilatation fracture process. Considering the stress state near the notch tip, the hydrostatic stress and maximum shear stress are considered for better understanding these two aspects. It is observed that the fatigue damage tolerance increased while the fatigue damage rate decreased after shot peening. Therefore, the notch fatigue properties of CM400 maraging steels can effectively be improved.
Metallic glasses (MGs) are known to have high strength, but poor ductility. Prior studies have shown that plasticity in MG can be enhanced by significantly reducing their dimension to nanoscale. Here we show that, via the introduction of certain types of crystalline/amorphous interfaces, plasticity of MG can be prominently enhanced as manifested by the formation of ductile “dimples” in a 2 μm thick amorphous CuNb film. By tailoring the volume fraction and architecture of crystalline/amorphous multilayers, tensile fracture surface of MG can evolve from brittle featureless morphology to containing ductile dimples. In situ micropillar compression studies performed inside a scanning electron microscope show that shear instability in amorphous layers can be inhibited by interfaces. The mechanisms for improving plasticity and fracture resistance of MG via interface and size effect are discussed.
Twinned silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) reinforced Si3N4–SiOC composites were successfully fabricated through a joint process of three-dimensional printing (3DP), direct nitridation, and polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP). 3DP and PIP were both addictive manufacturing processes, enabling the near net shape fabrication and microstructure designing of Si3N4–SiOC. With the increase of the PIP cycle number, the pores of Si3N4 were mostly filled with polymer-derived ceramics-silicon oxycarbide (containing SiC NWs and free carbons), which led to the increase of electrical conductivity of Si3N4–SiOC composites. With the increase of SiOC ceramics, the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of Si3N4–SiOC composites increased from 2 dB to 35 dB, in which the absorption shielding effectiveness increased to 27 dB. The flexural strength of Si3N4–SiOC composites reached 63 MPa when the content of SiOC ceramics was 50.1 wt%. It is indicated that Si3N4–SiOC ceramics are a promising electromagnetic shielding and structural material.
It is desirable to evaluate the ratcheting behavior of biomedical magnesium under cyclic loading with and without precorrosion, due to the promising future in biomedical implant field. This study focuses on the investigation of the uniaxial ratcheting strain evolutions of ZEK100 magnesium alloy sheet under various loading conditions and different corrosion time. To illustrate the ratcheting response in detail, the effects of several factors on the ratcheting strain evolution were discussed, including mean stress, stress amplitude, specimen orientations, loading history, and precorroded duration. A series of asymmetrical multistep stress-controlled ratcheting tests were conducted. The mean stress, stress amplitude, and precorrosion duration have significant influence on the ratcheting response of material. ZEK100 magnesium alloy is sensitive to loading history. ZEK100 magnesium alloy exhibits anisotropic behavior, and it is found that the final ratcheting strain of transverse direction (TD) specimens is always larger than that of rolling direction (RD) specimens. The corrosion behavior of ZEK100 magnesium alloy in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) simulated physiological environment was also studied. The corrosion process is characterized by pitting corrosion, and the corrosion rate of material stabilizes at about 2.4 g/(m2 d) after an exponentially decrease at initial stage.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Three important low valent transition metal oxides were synthesized in supercritical methanol by using inorganic metal salts as precursors. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to analyze the composition, structure, and morphology of the products. Results showed that Cu2O, MoO2, and V2O3 were obtained successfully under a supercritical condition of 240 °C and 9.0 MPa. MoO2 and V2O3 displayed sphere-like morphology with average particle sizes of 20–40 and 20–50 nm, respectively. Cu2O particles displayed edge-truncated cubic morphology with a particle size of 2.5 μm. Formation mechanism proposed that high valent metal oxides (CuO, MoO3, and V2O5) were formed firstly in supercritical methanol by the decomposing of precursors and then reduced to target products by free hydroxyl anions. In addition, methanol performed important roles not only as a reaction medium but also as a reducing agent under supercritical fluid conditions.
Hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of the Cu–Cr–Zr–Ag alloy were studied by hot compressive tests in the 650–950 °C temperature and 0.001–10 s−1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermomechanical simulator. The activation energy of deformation was determined as Q = 343.23 kJ/mol by the regression analysis. The critical conditions, including the critical strain and stress, for the occurrence of DRX were determined based on the alloy strain hardening rate. The critical strain related to the onset of DRX decreases with temperature. The ratios of the critical to peak stress and critical to peak strain were also identified as 0.91 and 0.49, respectively. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation conditions in terms of temperature and strain rate. Dislocation generation and multiplication are the main hot deformation mechanisms for the alloy. The addition of Ag can refine the grain and effectively improve the DRX of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy. It can also inhibit the growth of the DRX grains at 950 °C deformation temperature, making the microstructure much more stable.
Elevated levels of blood interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor–α (TNF–α) increase insulin resistance and result in inflammation. It is not clear whether elevated blood level of acetoacetate (ACAC) and decreased blood level of glucose, which are the predominant characteristics of clinical biochemistry in ketotic dairy cows, increase proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent inflammation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that ACAC and glucose activate the NF-κB signalling pathway to regulate cytokines expression in bovine hepatocytes. Bovine hepatocytes were cultured with ACAC (0–4·8 mm) and glucose (0–5·55 mm) with or without NF-κB inhibitor PDTC for 24 h. The secretion and mRNA levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The NF-κB signalling pathway activation was evaluated by western blotting. Results showed that the secretion and expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α increased in an ACAC dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there was an increase in the secretion and mRNA expression of these three cytokines in glucose treatment group, which increased significantly when the glucose concentrations exceed 3·33 mm. Furthermore, both ACAC and glucose upregulated NF-κB p65 protein expression and IκBα phosphorylation levels. However, these effects were reduced by PDTC. These results demonstrate that elevated levels of ACAC and glucose increase the synthesis and expression of proinflammatory factors by activating NF-κB signalling pathway in hepatocytes, which may contribute to inflammation injury in ketotic dairy cows.
Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (sd 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: −0·93 (sd 1·97), 2·11 (sd 4·90) and −1·60 (sd 2·65) % for the Low-Ca group; −0·56 (sd 1·89), 2·21 (sd 3·77) and −1·43 (sd 2·30) % for the Mid-Ca group; and −0·44 (sd 1·67), 2·32 (sd 4·66) and −0·95 (sd 4·08) % for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5–0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca.