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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressively attracted generous attention because of their versatile applications in solid state lighting and full color displays. High-efficiency is crucial for OLED devices being energy saving and to have a longer lifespan. Numerous approaches have been attempted to attain high-efficiency OLEDs via newly synthesized organic materials, light-extraction structure design and energy-efficient device architectures. The organic materials used in optoelectronic devices have inherently low dielectric constant. In this work, we demonstrate a comprehensive model to quantitatively investigate the role of dielectric constant of the electron transporting material on the electric field distribution, charge drift and exciton recombination probability across the emissive layer (EML) and electron transport layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode via commercialized electrical simulation package SETFOS.
The potential relationship between anaesthesia, surgery and onset of
dementia remains elusive.
To determine whether the risk of dementia increases after surgery with
anaesthesia, and to evaluate possible associations among age, mode of
anaesthesia, type of surgery and risk of dementia.
The study cohort comprised patients aged 50 years and older who were
anaesthetised for the first time since 1995 between 1 January 2004 and 31
December 2007, and a control group of randomly selected patients matched
for age and gender. Patients were followed until 31 December 2010 to
identify the emergence of dementia.
Relative to the control group, patients who underwent anaesthesia and
surgery exhibited an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio = 1.99) and
a reduced mean interval to dementia diagnosis. The risk of dementia
increased in patients who received intravenous or intramuscular
anaesthesia, regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia.
The results of our nationwide, population-based study suggest that
patients who undergo anaesthesia and surgery may be at increased risk of
Co silicide formed via selective diffusion of Co through a Ti interfacial layer has been reported by several groups. In this report, phase identification of the silicide has been further studied for both Co/Ti and Ti/Co multi- and bilayers deposited on p(100)-Si substrates. The samples were either vacuum furnace or RTA annealed from 550°C to 900°C. The Co silicide formation sequence in the Co/Ti-Si systems follows CoSi2→Co2Si→CoSi→CoSi2 with the formation temperature increasing for each phase. The Co/Ti bilayer CoSi to CoSi2 transformation temperature was lower than that for the six layer Co/Ti system. For the multilayer sample with Co as the first layer in contact with the Si substrate, CoSi2 formed at 550°C and then CoSi was observed at higher temperatures due to the effect of Co supply on disilicide phase instability. Epitaxial CoSi2 growth occured at higher temperatures after the removal of the unreacted upper layers. A 15 μΩ-cm film resistivity was obtained from 50 nm epitaxial CoSi2.
Cobalt silicide formed by diffusion of Co through a Ti compound has been reported for both bilayer and multilayer Co/Ti-Si structurest[2-4]. To compare the bilayer and multilayer systems in terms of the Co silicide interfacial morphology, both bilayers and six layers of 20nm Co and lOnm Ti were sputter deposited on (100)Si in a system where background. oxygen and carbon were gettered by each Ti layer. The samples were annealed from 550°C to 800°C for 60 sec by lamp RTA in N2 ambient. XTEM micrographs revealed that significant differences in interfacial morphology existed between bilayer and multilayer samples. The interfacial amorphous Ti(O.C) diffusion barrier layer was found to be more effective in the multilayer system producing uniform CoSix layers as thin as ∼5nm after 550°C RTA, whereas the silicide formed in the bilaver samples under the same condition was rough. RBS analysis showed that the transformation temperature from CoSi to CoSi2 was 800°C in bilayers and even higher for multilayers. The higher transformation temperature is attributed to the additional Co available in the multilayer system and its effect on Co monosilicide phase stability as previously reported.
This chapter focuses on the academic community and its institutional achievements in the first half of the twentieth century. It discusses the unexplored story with three main facets. First, China's intellectual history has outpaced her institutional history, and as known more about the late Ch'ing schools of Neo-Confucian thought, the Sung and Han learning, New Text and Old Text scholarship, even the T'ung-ch'eng school, than one does about the network of academies, libraries, printing shops and patrons that sustained Confucian scholarship. Second, in China's relations with Japan, politics has thus far eclipsed the academic story. Most of the thousands of Chinese students who went to Tokyo returned to careers of service in their homeland; not all by any means became revolutionaries. Third, the educational influences streaming into China from Europe and America constitute a vast terrain of unimaginable variety and unexplored proportions. Nearly all the nations and all the disciplines were involved in this largest of all cultural migrations.
There were mines and smelters located in all the provinces of Ch'ing China before the nineteenth century. Their sizes varied greatly, as did their role in the local as well as national economy. Government policy regarding these industries was not based on a uniform code, but rather reflected a body of principles that served as guidelines for coping with each individual situation as it arose. Indeed, reading the early Ch'ing documents on mining leaves one at first with the impression that the authorities were eternally debating over the question, “to mine or not to mine.” Upon closer examination it soon becomes clear, however, that “mining affairs” were far from being administered along haphazard lines. It is the intention of this paper to describe some of the basic factors that went into the making of government decisions regarding mineral enterprises. In doing this, it would be helpful to keep these questions in mind: how did the mineral industries fit into the general framework of an agrarian-based civil bureaucracy? In the application of policy, did the government invariably let its actions be determined by a priori conceptions, or did it base decisions on pragmatic grounds? What sort of relation was generally accepted as the norm between the government and the operators of the enterprises in the instances where government interest was manifest?
After three-quarters of a century of fluctuating efforts, the development of railways in China remains an unfinished task today. In contrast to industrially more advanced countries, which had built most of their existing lines by the turn of the present century, railway construction is regarded even now as an indispensable part of the economic development of China. Measured by the potential demands of the country the existing railway facilities are small indeed. Recent data indicate that at the end of 1952 the Chinese railway system consisted of some 17,570 miles of tracks, including all lines in operation on the mainland and Hainan but excluding those on Formosa. This means that there is one mile of railway for every 216 square miles of territory (or approximately 463 miles per 100,000 square miles), and that for every 1,000,000 of population there are 39 miles of rail transportation. Small though the figures appear to be, they nevertheless represent an increase over those of a decade ago. In 1942 the estimate was 12,036 miles of railways in all of China, including those in Manchuria and the occupied areas; the ratio was then 274 miles of railroads per 100,000 square miles, and 27 miles per 1,000,000 population. The vast potential development that lies ahead is apparent when we compare the above figures with those for the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan.
Among the railway concessions obtained by Britain from the Chinese government during the battle for concessions in 1898 was one covering a line that would branch off from the Shanghai-Nanking Railway (another British concession) at Soochow, run southwestward to Hangchow, at the head of the Ch'ien-t'ang estuary, and turn southeastward to terminate at the treaty port of Ningpo. Traversing the coastal areas of Kiangsu and Chekiang provinces, a fertile and well-populated region, the economic possibilities of this railway had been long recognized by the British. After an unsuccessful attempt to make it an Anglo-German enterprise in 1897-98, the concession was granted to the British and Chinese Corporation, a British syndicate formed that year by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and Jardine, Matheson and Company for the furtherance of British railway interest in China. The line was to be financed and constructed by the corporation under the nominal ownership of the Chinese Imperial Railway Administration.
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