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To assess agreement between established methods of estimating salt intake from spot urine collections and 24 h urinary Na (24hUNa) and then to develop a valid formula that can be used in the Iranian population to estimate salt intake from spot urine samples.
A validation study. Three spot urine samples were collected (fasting second-void morning; afternoon; evening) on the same day as a 24 h urine collection. We estimated 24hUNa from spot specimens using the Kawasaki, Tanaka and INTERSALT equations. Two new formulas were developed, the Iran formula 1 (Iran 1) and Iran formula 2 (Iran 2), based on our population characteristics.
Iranian adults recruited in 2014–2015.
Healthy volunteer adults aged ≥18 years.
With all three spot urine specimens, predicted population 24hUNa was underestimated based on the INTERSALT equation (−469 to −708 mg/d; all P < 0·05) and conversely overestimation occurred with the Kawasaki equation (926 to 1080 mg/d; all P < 0·01). The Tanaka equation produced comparable estimates to measured 24hUNa (–151 to 86 mg/d; all P > 0·49). The newly derived formulas, Iran 1 and Iran 2, showed less mean bias than the established equations (Iran 1: 43 to 80 mg/d, all P > 0·55; Iran 2: 22 to 90 mg/d, all P > 0·50).
In this Iranian sample, the Tanaka equation and newly derived formulas produced group-level estimates comparable to measured 24hUNa. The newly developed formulas showed less mean bias than established equations; however, they need to be tested for generalization in a larger sample.
To evaluate the implementation of the national health promotion programme (through nutritional education and Fe supplementation) among female high-school students in Iran and to assess the application of the crosswise model (CM) for evaluating the programme’s implementation.
Two cross-sectional surveys in female high-school students, one using the direct questioning (DQ) method and the other using the CM, were conducted. Two survey questionnaires used to collect the data contained questions about three aspects of the programme: delivering the Fe supplements, consuming them and holding nutritional training sessions.
Female high schools, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
A sample of 2180 students, of whom 1740 were surveyed by the CM and 440 were interviewed by DQ.
The CM resulted in estimates that were consistently lower than the estimates of the DQ. The proportion of students in the DQ and CM who reported receiving the pills weekly and on a regular basis was 73·2 and 22·5 %, respectively. About 43 and 31 % of students in the DQ and CM surveys reported consuming all pills delivered to them. In the DQ method, only 12 % of students who reported the number of pills consumed had taken the complete dose (sixteen pills).
Implementation of the Fe supplementation programme in female high schools was poor and insufficient, so that it seems unsuccessful in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in adolescent girls. The CM might be considered for evaluating the health programme’s implementation at high schools.
To investigate seasonal variations of vitamin D status at different latitudes and if these changes are accompanied by corresponding variations in certain health parameters in children living in a broad latitudinal range in Iran.
In total, 530 apparently healthy children aged 5–18 years were randomly selected from six regions of Iran with a latitudinal gradient from 29°N to 37·5°N. All anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed twice during a year (summer, winter). High BMI (Z-score >1), low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl, males; <50 mg/dl, females) and high TAG (>150 mg/dl) were considered cardiometabolic risk factors.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) showed between-season variation, with significantly higher concentrations (mean (sd)) in summer v. winter (43 (29) v. 27 (18) nmol/l; P<0·001). Change of circulating 25(OH)D between summer and winter was negatively correlated with change of BMI (r=−0·16; P<0·001), TAG (r=−0·09; P=0·04) and total cholesterol (r=−0·10; P=0·02) and directly correlated with change of height-for-age Z-score (r=0·09; P=0·04). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis (β; 95 % CI) showed that winter serum 25(OH)D (−0·3; −0·4, −0·2; P<0·001), gender (boys v. girls: 9·7; 5·2, 14·1; P<0·001) and latitude (>33°N v. <33°N: 4·5; 0·09, 9·0; P=0·04) were predictors of change of serum 25(OH)D between two seasons.
Summertime improvement of vitamin D status was accompanied by certain improved cardiometabolic risk factors, notably serum TAG, total cholesterol and BMI, in children.
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