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Thrombocytopenia occasionally occurs following the closure of some giant patent ductus arteriosus cases. Unfortunately, there is no associated research describing the associated risk factors for thrombocytopenia post-procedure.
We reviewed all patients who received occluders with sizes ≥10/12 mm between January 2013 and June 2019. All the data and information on the characteristics of the patients and their follow-up were recorded. Univariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves, and linear regression were used to analyse the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and the predictors of hospitalisation stay.
Finally, 32 patients (17.5%) suffered from thrombocytopenia. Univariate analysis revealed the ratio between occluder disc size (mm) and body weight (kg) (1.71 ± 0.51 versus 1.35 ± 0.53) as an independent predictive factor for thrombocytopenia, and the area under the curve of the ratio of occluder size and body weight for predicting thrombocytopenia post-closure was 0.691 (95% confidence interval: 0.589–0.792, p = 0.001). The best cut-off value for the ratio of occluder size and weight was 1.5895, with a sensitivity and specificity of 68.8 and 66.9%, respectively. Each unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight predicted an average hospitalisation stay of 2.856 days (95% confidence interval: 1.380–4.332). Treatment with medication did not reduce the hospitalisation stay or benefit platelet restoration.
Once the ratio of occluder size and body weight is greater than 1.6, thrombocytopenia always exists. Every unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight represents an additional 3 days of hospitalisation. Treatment does not reduce the duration of hospitalisation.
Little is known about poverty trends in people with severe mental illness (SMI) over a long time span, especially under conditions of fast socioeconomic development.
This study aims to unravel changes in household poverty levels among people with SMI in a fast-changing rural community in China.
Two mental health surveys, using ICD-10, were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China. A total of 711 and 1042 people with SMI identified in 1994 and 2015, respectively, participated in the study. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index was adopted to measure the changes in household poverty. These changes were decomposed into effects of growth and equity using a static decomposition method. Factors associated with household poverty in 1994 and 2015 were examined and compared by regression analyses.
The proportion of poor households, as measured by the headcount ratio, increased significantly from 29.8% in 1994 to 39.5% in 2015. Decomposition showed that poverty in households containing people with SMI had worsened because of a redistribution effect. Factors associated with household poverty had also changed during the study period. The patient's age, ability to work and family size were of paramount significance in 2015.
This study shows that the levels of poverty faced by households containing people with SMI has become more pressing with China's fast socioeconomic development. It calls for further integration of mental health recovery and targeted antipoverty interventions for people with SMI as a development priority.
Precise positioning with low-cost single-frequency global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers has great potential in a wide range of applications because of its low price and improved accuracy. However, challenges remain in achieving reliable and accurate solutions using low-cost receivers. For instance, the successful ambiguity fixing rate could be low for real-time kinematic (RTK) while large errors may occur in precise point positioning (PPP) in some scenarios (e.g., trees along the road). To solve the problems, this paper proposes a method with the aid of additional lane-level digital map information to improve the accuracy and reliability of RTK and PPP solutions. In the method, a digital camera will be applied for lane recognition and the positioning solution from a low-cost receiver will be projected to the digital map lane link. With the projected point position as a constraint, the RTK ambiguity fixing rate and PPP performance can be enhanced. A field kinematic test was conducted to verify the improvement of the RTK and PPP solutions with the aid of map matching. The results show that the RTK ambiguity fixing rate can be increased and the PPP positioning error can be reduced by map matching.
Since December 2019, several new infectious diseases, mainly lung diseases caused by novel coronavirus infections, have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province. With the spread of the epidemic, cases in other regions of China and abroad have been confirmed. This sudden outbreak of a new type of infectious disease has seriously threatened people’s health and safety, and China has adopted strong prevention and control measures in response. To provide a reference for international health emergency management workers, this article summarizes, from an academic perspective, the main prevention and control measures taken in China.
This paper investigates the volatility in regime-switching models formulated based on the geometric Brownian motion with its drift and volatility factors randomized with Markov chains. By developing explicit formulas about occupation time of Markov chains, we analysis the difference between global volatility of this model and the volatility caused by Brownian randomness, in order to measure the volatility caused by regime-switching after justifying its existence. Utilizing this structure of volatility, we optimize the methods of volatility parameters estimation.
Indoor positioning systems have received increasing attention for supporting location-based services in indoor environments. Wi-Fi based indoor localisation has become attractive due to its extensive distribution and low cost properties. IEEE 802.11-2016 now includes a Wi-Fi Fine Time Measurement (FTM) protocol which can be used for Wi-Fi ranging between intelligent terminal and Wi-Fi access point. This paper introduces a framework of Wi-Fi FTM data acquisition and processing that can be used for indoor localisation. We analyse the main factors that affect the accuracy of Wi-Fi ranging and propose a calibration, filtering and modelling algorithm that can effectively reduce the ranging error caused by clock deviation, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multipath propagation. Experimental results show that the proposed calibration and filtering method is able to achieve metre-level ranging accuracy in case of line-of-sight by using large bandwidth. Estimation results also show that the proposed Wi-Fi ranging model provides an accurate ranging performance in NLOS and multipath contained indoor environment; the final positioning error is less than 2·2 m with a stable output frequency of 3 Hz.
Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and realgar (As4S4) are two common arsenic minerals that often cause serious environmental issues. Centralised treatment of arsenic-containing tailings can reduce land occupation and save management costs. The current work examined the remediation schemes of tailings from Hunan Province, China, where by different tailings containing arsenopyrite and realgar were blended with exogenous slag zero valence iron (ZVI). Introducing Fe-oxidising bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) recreates a biologically oxidative environment. All bioleaching experiments were done over three stages, each for 7 days and the solid phase of all tests was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selective extraction analyses. The results showed that the mixture group reduced arsenic release by 72.9–74.7% compared with the control group. The addition of 0.2 g ZVI clearly decreased arsenic release, and the addition of 4.0 g ZVI led to the lowest arsenic release among all tests. The decrease of arsenic released from the tailings was due to the adsorption and uptake of arsenic by secondary iron-containing minerals and Fe–As(V) secondary mineralisation. The addition of large amounts of ZVI reduced the arsenic detected in the amorphous Fe precipitates. Therefore, a low cost and integrated strategy to reduce arsenic release from tailings is to mix two typical tailings and apply exogenous slag ZVI, which can apply to the in situ remediation of two kinds or more arsenic-containing tailings.
Thermal barrier coating is a high-temperature protective technology widely used in industrial gas turbines. However, the failure of coating peeling because of the generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the interface during service hinders its further application. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and wedge indentation are used to determine the TGO residual stress and the interface energy release rate, respectively. The effect of TGO on the interfacial fracture toughness during the growth process was discussed. Raman spectroscopy test results show that the residual stress of TGO is about 0.5 GPa. Wedge indentation test results illustrate that high-temperature heat treatment could accelerate the interface degradation of thermal barrier coatings. Stress analysis and test research demonstrate that the microcracks induced by compressive stress of TGO will propagate with increasing heating time, ending with failure of barrier coatings.
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of Schizophrenia.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of QRS via thought disorder detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients, 155 patients with bipolar disorders patient, and 100 normal controls. Thought disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists' diagnoses were compared. Also Thought disorder symptoms of renumbered 65 schizophrenia patient and 100 normal controls were discriminated using QRS test.
Kappa values of thought disorders detection and diagnosed were more than 65% in 6/9 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 74% in all 3 symptoms of bipolar disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of delusion, looseness of thought and paralogism thinking detected utilizing QRS are more than 70% same compared with psychiatrists diagnoses.
QRS in thought disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
Finding the prediction factors for the risks of post-stroke depression (PSD) is important to stroke survivors. However, most existing studies focused only on general clinical data, which limited the predictive ability. To improve the predictive ability, this study proposed a comprehensive PSD risk prediction model with social psychological factors, neurological, cognitive functional factors and general clinical factors.
The study recruited 188 stroke patients. Patients were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Predictors were collected within a week after stroke. Boosted regression trees (BRT) was used to classify these predictors, and then a predictive model was constructed based on the selected predictors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the performance of the predictive model .
The risk prediction model was constructed with 6 factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), cerebral infraction history (CI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Neuroticism (EPQ-N), factor 1 of the 20 items Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-F1) and Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure Scale (SHARPS). In the contribution of risk prediction factors, social psychological factors was more than 0.60. ROC curve of prediction model was 0.826 (p<0.001; 95% CI) and the accuracy of prediction was 0.81 (p<0.001). Transforming the prediction model to a tree diagram, it was convenient to clinic operation.
A PSD risk prediction model with good prediction performance was constructed to achieve diagnose concisely and clearly. The social psychological factors play an important role for diagnosing PSD in the early period.
This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Tianjin caused by a novel coronavirus and provides the scientific basis for prevention and control measures.
Data from COVID-19 cases were collected from daily notifications given to the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and Tianjin Health Committee. All of the data were analyzed with SPSS, version 24.0 software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).
As of February 24, 2020, there have been 135 confirmed cases, 3 deaths, and 87 recoveries in Tianjin, China. The incidence of COVID-19 was 8.65/1 000 000 with a 2.22% case fatality rate. Regarding geographic distribution, the incidence was 8.82 per 1 000 000 in urban areas and 8.00 per 1 000 000 in suburbs. During the early stage of the epidemic, most cases came from urban areas and in patients with a history of sojourning in Hubei Province. The majority of patients were 31–70 years old (75.97%). A familial clustering was the most important characteristic of COVID-19 (accounting for 74.81%).
Current information suggests that people are generally susceptible to COVID-19, which has shown a familial clustering in Tianjin.
Emerging evidences indicate that the alteration of interhemispheric functional coordination may be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). In present study, we aim to explore the potential marker by using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach, which may be contributing to predict the clinical prognosis in MDD.
Eighty-two MDD patients and 50 normal control (NC) subjects participated in this study. We divided the MDD group into unremitted and remitted group according to the reduction rate of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) within 2 weeks.
The study detected significantly decreased VMHC in bilateral precuneus (pCu), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and increased VMHC in middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and caudate nucleus when compared remitted depression (RD) group to unremitted depression (URD) group. Meanwhile, when compared with NC group, the URD group presented reduced VMHC in bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, thalamus and postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the VHMC in media frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus were significantly decreased in RD group. Correlation analysis suggested that reduced VMHC in bilateral pCu was negatively correlated with the baseline HAMD score of URD (r = −0.325, P = 0.041). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that three regional VMHC changes could identify depressed patient with poorer treatment response: ITG [area under curve (AUC) = 0.699, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 0.586–0.812], MFG (AUC = 0.692, P = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.580–0.805), pCu (AUC = 0.714, P = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.603–0.825).
The current study combined with previous evidence indicates that the subdued intrinsic interhemispheric functional connectivity might represents a novel neural trait involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
What explains public attitudes towards a former aggressor state? Conventional wisdom would suggest the prevalence of negative sentiments rooted in historical hatred. In this article we contend that when individuals are proficient in a foreign language—e.g. a lingua franca—they have an alternative channel through which they are exposed to positive narratives put forth by other parties regarding the former aggressor state. And as a result, their attitudes towards the former aggressor state are more positive than those held by their linguistically limited counterparts. To test our argument, we focus on public attitudes towards the Japanese in Mainland China, Singapore, and Taiwan—three Chinese-ethnic majority political units that experienced Japanese aggression leading up to and during World War II. Using survey data, we demonstrate that individuals who are proficient in the English language are much more likely to hold positive attitudes of the Japanese. These results are robust even when we consider whether some individuals are predisposed to being cosmopolitan; whether some individuals have more opportunities to learn English; and whether the linguistic effects are symptomatic of American soft power.
Few studies have investigated the association between maternal dietary patterns (DP) during pregnancy, derived from reduced-rank regression (RRR), and fetal growth. This study aims to identify DP during pregnancy associated with macro- and micronutrient intakes, using the RRR method, and to examine their relationship with birth weight (BW). We used data of 7194 women from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in Northwest China. Dietary protein, carbohydrate, haem Fe density and the ratio of PUFA and MUFA:SFA were used as the intermediate variables in the RRR model to extract DP. Generalised estimating equation models were applied to evaluate the associations between DP and BW and related outcomes (including BW z-score, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Four DP during pregnancy were identified. Socio-demographically disadvantaged pregnant women were more likely to have lower BW and lower adherence to DP1 (high legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods, with relative low wheat and oils). Women with medium and high adherence to DP1 had significantly increased BW (medium 28·6 (95 % CI 7·1, 50·1); high 25·2 (95 % CI 2·7, 47·6)) and BW z-score and had significantly reduced risks of LBW and SGA. The associations were stronger among women with babies <3100 g. There is no association between other DP and outcomes. Higher adherence to the DP that was high in legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods was associated with improved BW in the Chinese pregnant women, particularly among those with disadvantageous socio-demographic conditions.
This study presents monazite and rutile U–Pb and hornblende and biotite 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data for high-grade rocks of the eastern Grenville-aged Rayner orogen at Mount Brown in order to analyse the extent and degree of Pan-African-aged reworking. Monazite from paragneiss yields U–Pb ages of 910 Ma for larger granular grains and 670–630 Ma for smaller globular beads around garnet porphyroblasts or hosted by symplectites. Rutile from leucogneiss yields U–Pb ages of 520–515 Ma. Hornblende and biotite from different rock types yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 744 and 520–505 Ma, respectively. Combining these results with published zircon U–Pb age data suggests that granulite facies metamorphism occurred at 910 Ma, with a local low-temperature fluid flow event at 670–630 Ma and thermal reworking at 520–505 Ma. The older age of 744 Ma may reflect cooling or partial resetting of the hornblende 40Ar/39Ar system, indicating that Pan-African-aged reworking did not exceed temperatures much higher than the hornblende Ar closure temperature. These data also suggest that the complete isotopic resetting of some minerals may occur without the growth of new mineral phases, providing an example of the style of reworking that is likely to occur in polymetamorphic terranes.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope geology of Devonian mafic rocks developed in the East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Tibetan Plateau, and reveals their mantle sources, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications for continental exhumation. The zircon geochronology of typical samples indicates that these mafic rocks crystallized at 406∼408 Ma. They can be classified into two different groups based on petrographic observations and geochemical compositions. Group 1 rocks exhibit low TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios and have enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB)-like compositions with slight negative Nb and Ta anomalies. However, Group 2 rocks have distinctly high TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios, comparable to typical Fe–Ti-rich mafic rocks worldwide. All the samples exhibit weak enrichments in light rare earth elements, Nb and Ta relative to the primitive mantle. Based on geochemical and isotopic studies, Group 1 rocks are suggested to be derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle that was metasomatized by c. 3–5 % continental crustal components, while Group 2 rocks originated from partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. The high contents of Fe, Ti and Nb for Group 2 rocks could be attributed to a high degree of olivine crystallization under low fO2 conditions with delayed nucleation of Fe–Ti oxides. Combining those results with other geological data, we conclude that slab break-off was the key factor causing exhumation of eclogites and triggering flare-up of the Devonian magmatism, and that continental collision or continental subduction may have initiated at 431∼436 Ma.
Advances in the fabrication and characterization of polymeric nanomaterials has greatly advanced the miniaturization of soft actuators, creating materials capable of replicating the functional physical behavior previously limited to the macroscale. Here, we demonstrate how a reversible shape-memory polymer actuation can be generated in a single micro/nano object, where the shape change during actuation of an individual fiber can be dictated by programming using an AFM-based method. Electrospinning was used to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone) micro-/nanofibers, which were fixed and crosslinked on a structured silicon wafer. The programming as well as the observation of recovery and reversible displacement of the fiber were performed by vertical three point bending, using an AFM testing platform introduced here. A plateau tip was utilized to improve the stability of the fiber contact and working distance, enabling larger deformations and greater rbSMPA performance. Values for the reversible elongation of εrev = 3.4 ± 0.1% and 10.5 ± 0.1% were obtained for a single micro (d = 1.0 ± 0.2 μm) and nanofiber (d = 300 ± 100 nm) in cyclic testing between the temperatures 10 and 60 °C. The reversible actuation of the nanofiber was successfully characterized for 10 cycles. The demonstration and characterization of individual shape-memory nano and microfiber actuators represents an important step in the creation of miniaturized robotic devices capable of performing complex physical functions at the length scale of cells and structural component of the extracellular matrix.
In 2018, the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) finalized its first video compression format AV1, which is jointly developed by the industry consortium of leading video technology companies. The main goal of AV1 is to provide an open source and royalty-free video coding format that substantially outperforms state-of-the-art codecs available on the market in compression efficiency while remaining practical decoding complexity as well as being optimized for hardware feasibility and scalability on modern devices. To give detailed insights into how the targeted performance and feasibility is realized, this paper provides a technical overview of key coding techniques in AV1. Besides, the coding performance gains are validated by video compression tests performed with the libaom AV1 encoder against the libvpx VP9 encoder. Preliminary comparison with two leading HEVC encoders, x265 and HM, and the reference software of VVC is also conducted on AOM's common test set and an open 4k set.
Tianhuadong is a cave site located in the northwest of Yunnan Province, China. Since 2010, several surveys and one test excavation have yielded more than 1000 stone artifacts. The lithic assemblage shows some features of Levallois and Quina technologies, similar to those found in Middle Paleolithic sites in the Western Hemisphere. In this study, we summarize the lithic industry and propose a reliable chronology for the site using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of individual quartz grains extracted from sediments. We applied the standardized growth curve method to deal with the problem associated with the saturation in natural OSL signals in quartz. Our dating results yielded ages of 90–40 ka, suggesting that the associated lithic assemblage could be assigned to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 4 and could potentially represent Middle Paleolithic technologies. Because the number of Middle Paleolithic sites in southwest China is small, this site provides one of the few traces of human occupation in southwest China during the early upper Pleistocene. Thus, it is important for understanding hominin evolution and dispersal in this region.