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The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD.
370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia, and the outcome liver histological severity, was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology.
Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite NASH than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.79, 95%CI 1.31-5.95, p=0.008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43.8% vs. 17.2%, p=0.031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (p-value for interaction=0.006).
Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
Brachiopod shell accumulations are abundant and diverse in the lower Cambrian strata of Yunnan Province, South China, but most commonly they are composed of linguloid and acrotheloid brachiopods. Here, we describe the first record of shell beds with high-density accumulations of microscopic acrotretoid brachiopods (usually <2 mm in width) in the muddy deposits of the Wulongqing Formation (Guanshan Biota, Cambrian Stage 4) in the Wuding area of Yunnan Province. The acrotretoid shell beds from the Wulongqing Formation vary from thin mm-thick pavements to more well-developed beds, several centimeters thick. The occurrence of remarkably rich acrotretoid shell beds indicates that microscopic lingulates began to exert an important role in hardening and paving the soft-substrate seafloor during the early Cambrian evolution of Phanerozoic “mixgrounds.” The new Guanshan material is referred to a new species, Linnarssonia sapushanensis n. sp., which differs from other species of Linnarssonia mainly in having a well-developed internal pedicle tube, as well as a relatively longer dorsal median septum. The occurrence of Linnarssonia sapushanensis n. sp. in the Wulongqing Formation in eastern Yunnan extend the oldest record of the genus on the Yangtze Platform of South China back to at least Cambrian Stage 4.
In order to clarify fine structures of the hypothetical meridian conduits of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) in the skin, the present study used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine fasciae in different vertebrate species. Collagen fiber bundles and layers were arranged in a crisscross pattern, which developed into a special tissue micro-channel (TMC) network, in a manner that was analogs to the proposed skin meridian conduits. It was further revealed that tissue fluid in lateral TMC branches drained into wide longitudinal channels, which were distinctly different from lymphatic capillary. Mast cells, macrophages, and extracellular vesicles such as ectosomes and exosomes were distributed around telocytes (TCs) and their long processes (Telopodes, Tps) within the TMC. Cell junctions between TCs developed, which could enable the communication between contiguous but distant Tps. On the other hand, winding free Tps without cell junctions were also uncovered inside the TMC. Tissue fluid, cell junctions of TCs, mast cells, macrophages, and extracellular vesicles within the TMC corresponded to the circulating “气血” (“Qi-Xue”, i.e., information, message, and energy) of meridian conduits at the cytological level. These results could provide morphological evidence for the hypothesis that “meridians are the conduit for Qi-Xue circulation” in CTM.
Telocytes (TCs) are very long, non-neuronal, somatic cells whose function is widely believed to be involved in providing connections between different cells within the body. The cellular characteristics of TCs in various organs have been studied by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and electron microscopy in different vertebrate species, and here we investigate the proposed properties of these cells in the context of the “meridian” in Chinese Traditional Medicine (CTM). The results show that TCs and their long extensions, telopodes (Tps) develop a complicated network by homo- and heterocellular junctions in the connective tissue throughout the body, which can connect the skin with distant organs. In concept, this is the analogue of ancient meridian maps connecting skin acupoints with the viscera. Various active cells and extracellular vesicles including exosomes move along Tps, which, along with developed mitochondria within the podoms of Tps, may account for the structural evidence for “Qi” (vital energy and signal communication) in CTM. Morphological associations of TCs with the nerve, vascular, endocrine, and immune systems are also compatible with previously proposed meridian theories in CTM. Close relationships exist between TCs and collagen fiber bundles and some structures in skin fascia provide the microanatomical support for acupuncture treatment based on the meridian principle. The dynamicity in the distribution and structure of TCs reflects the plasticity of the meridian at the cellular level. As the same attribute, both the meridian and the TC have been associated with various diseases. Here, we summarize structural analogues between the TC and the meridian, suggesting that TCs have the cytological characteristics of the CTM meridian. We, therefore, hypothesize that TCs are the “essence cells” of the CTM meridian, which can connect and integrate different cells and structures in the connective tissue.
Indoor positioning systems have received increasing attention for supporting location-based services in indoor environments. Wi-Fi based indoor localisation has become attractive due to its extensive distribution and low cost properties. IEEE 802.11-2016 now includes a Wi-Fi Fine Time Measurement (FTM) protocol which can be used for Wi-Fi ranging between intelligent terminal and Wi-Fi access point. This paper introduces a framework of Wi-Fi FTM data acquisition and processing that can be used for indoor localisation. We analyse the main factors that affect the accuracy of Wi-Fi ranging and propose a calibration, filtering and modelling algorithm that can effectively reduce the ranging error caused by clock deviation, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multipath propagation. Experimental results show that the proposed calibration and filtering method is able to achieve metre-level ranging accuracy in case of line-of-sight by using large bandwidth. Estimation results also show that the proposed Wi-Fi ranging model provides an accurate ranging performance in NLOS and multipath contained indoor environment; the final positioning error is less than 2·2 m with a stable output frequency of 3 Hz.
The crystal plastic theory was used to examine the effect of film-cooling hole arrangements on mechanical properties of cooled turbine blade. The finite element method was used to analyze the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress of an octahedral slip system considering the number of rows, diameter, spacing, and tangential-to-longitudinal hole spacing (h/l) ratio. The different arrangements were found to have a significant influence on the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress. For the triangular arrangement, the von Mises stress and resolved shear stress were highest with double rows, followed by a single row and then triple rows. For the quadrilateral arrangement, the stresses were highest with double rows, followed by triple rows and then a single row. Increasing the spacing or decreasing the diameter reduced the maximum von Mises stress and weakened the multi-hole interference effect. Both the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress decreased with the h/l ratio.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
The acanthocephalans are characterized by a retractible proboscis, armed with rows of recurved hooks, which serves as the primary organ for attachment of the adult worm to the intestinal wall of the vertebrate definitive host. Whilst there is a considerable variation in the size, shape and armature of the proboscis across the phylum, intraspecific variation is generally regarded to be minimal. Consequently, subtle differences in proboscis morphology are often used to delimit congeneric species. In this study, striking variability in proboscis morphology was observed among individuals of Neorhadinorhynchus nudus (Harada, 1938) collected from the frigate tuna Auxis thazard Lacépède (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the South China Sea. Based on the length of the proboscis, and number of hooks per longitudinal row, these specimens of N. nudus were readily grouped into three distinct morphotypes, which might be considered separate taxa under the morphospecies concept. However, analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed a level of nucleotide divergence typical of an intraspecific comparison. Moreover, the three morphotypes do not represent three separate genetic lineages. The surprising, and previously undocumented level of intraspecific variation in proboscis morphology found in the present study, underscores the need to use molecular markers for delimiting acanthocephalan species.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
The Jurassic Linglong granites, intrusive into the North China Craton (NCC) in eastern China, provide a critical record of the first major episode of lithospheric-scale extension and magmatism in NE China during Mesozoic time. Our U–Pb zircon dating reveals that the Linglong granites were emplaced during 161–158 Ma, shortly after the inception of a shallow subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate beneath East Asia during Middle Jurassic time. These granites have high alkali contents (K2O + Na2O = 8–9 wt%), low MgO and Mg no. values and variable Cr–Ni abundances. Their relatively high Ba and Sr concentrations, relatively low heavy rare Earth element (HREE) and strongly fractionated REE patterns characterize them as high Ba–Sr granites. The negative whole-rock εNd(t) values ranging from −22.4 to −10.9 and wide-ranging zircon εHf(t) values of −39.1 to −1.5 suggest that magmas of the Linglong granites were produced by partial melting of a garnet-amphibolite-bearing lower crust of the Jiaobei Terrane and by re-melting of the Triassic ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks and alkaline suites of the Sulu Terrane. The occurrence in the granitic rocks of inherited zircons of the Neoarchaean, Palaeoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and Triassic ages suggests that magmas of the Linglong granites interacted with the ancient crust in these terranes during their ascent. Asthenospheric upwelling, induced by the steepening and rapid rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific slab during Late Jurassic time, provided the heat source for the inferred lower crustal melting. Trench migration and thermal weakening of the crust caused extensional deformation and thinning in the eastern part of the NCC.
Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.
An energy measurement system in a Large-aperture high power laser experiment platform
is introduced. The entire measurement system includes five calorimeters, which carry
out the energy measurement of the fundamental frequency before the frequency
conversion unit, remaining fundamental frequency, remain second-harmonics, third
harmonics, as well as the energy balance measurement after the frequency conversion
unit. Combinational indirect calibration and direct calibration are employed to
calibrate the sampling coefficients of the calorimeters. The analysis of the data
showed that, regarding the energy balance coefficients, combinational calibration
approach gives a higher precision, and leads to an energy balance with 1%; and
regarding the energy sampling coefficients for the various wavelengths after the
frequency conversion, the results from direct and combinational calibration are
consistent. The uncertainties for all energy sampling coefficients are within 3%,
which guarantees the reliability of the energy measurement for the laser
Intra-uterine growth-retarded (IUGR) neonates have shown an impairment of postnatal intestinal development and function. We hypothesised that the immune function of IUGR neonates might be affected by increased nutrient intake (NI) during the suckling period. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high NI (HNI) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and immunological response of IUGR and normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and NBW piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to two different nutrient-level formula milk groups. After 21 d of rearing, growth performance, the composition of peripheral leucocytes, serum cytokines and intestinal innate immune-related genes involved in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4–myeloid differentiation factor 88–NF-κB pathway were determined. The results indicated that IUGR decreased the average daily DM intake (ADMI) and the average daily growth (ADG). However, the ADMI and ADG were increased by HNI, irrespective of body weight. Likewise, serum cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and ileal gene expressions (TLR-4, TLR-9, TRAF-6 and IL-1β) were lower in IUGR piglets, whereas HNI significantly increased blood lymphocyte percentage and serum IL-10 concentrations, but decreased neutrophil percentage, serum IL-1β concentrations and ileal gene expressions (NF-κB and IL-1β). Furthermore, IUGR piglets with HNI exhibited lower serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β than NBW piglets, and these alterations in the immune traits of IUGR piglets receiving HNI were accompanied by decreasing ileal gene expressions of TLR-4, TLR-9, NF-κB and IL-1β that are related to innate immunity. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that increased NI during the suckling period impaired the immune function of neonatal piglets with IUGR.
Whale oocytes recovered from follicles can be matured in vitro. Whale sperm and mature oocytes can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), and IVF embryos have the ability to develop to morula stage. Whale sperm injected into bovine or mouse oocytes can activate the oocytes and form pronucleus. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos have been reconstructed with whale somatic cell nucleus and enucleated bovine or porcine oocytes, and interspecies cloned embryos can develop in vitro. This paper reviews recent progress in maturation, fertilization and development of whale oocytes.
Congruent Er:Mg:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by the Czochralski method from the melts containing fixed 0.5 mol% Er2O3 while varied MgO content ranged from 0.0 to 8.0 mol%. The Mg and Er contents in the crystals were determined by neutron activation analysis. In the presence of Er codopant, the Mg threshold concentration with respect to optical damage is determined from the measured OH absorption spectra. The results show that the Er codopant has less effect on both the Mg threshold concentration and Mg segregation coefficient, which is within 1.13–1.23 as the Mg concentration is below the threshold while within 0.88–0.98 when above the threshold, consistent with the only MgO doping case. On the other hand, the practical Er concentration in the crystal is closely related to the Mg content and shows definite Mg threshold effect. Below the threshold, the Er concentration decreases linearly with the increased Mg concentration in the crystal; above the threshold, the decrease is more remarkable and follows another linear function. The Mg concentration effect on the Er segregation coefficient is discussed from the viewpoint of the Mg doping effect on the solubility of Er ions in the crystal.
At 1100 °C, the diffusion properties of Ti4+ into congruent LiNbO3 crystals codoped with 0.5 mol% Er2O3 and different MgO concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mol% have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Three Y-cut and three Z-cut plates with different Mg doping levels were coated with a 60-nm-thick Ti film at first and then annealed at 1100 °C for 28 h in a wet O2 atmosphere. SIMS was used to analyze depth profile characteristics of diffused Ti ions and the constituent elements of the substrate as well. The results show that the diffusion reservoir was exhausted and the Ti metal film was completely diffused. All measured Ti profiles follow a Gaussian function. No Mg out-diffusion accompanied the Ti in-diffusion procedure for all crystals studied. The 1/e diffusion depth is similar to 8.3/10.2, 7.4/8.7, and 6.6/8.2 ± 0.2/0.2 μm/μm for the Y/Z-cut crystal with the Mg doping level of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mol%, respectively, yielding a Ti4+ diffusivity of 0.62/0.93, 0.49/0.67, and 0.39/0.60 ± 0.03/0.03 (μm2/h)/(μm2/h), respectively. The diffusion shows definite anisotropy and a considerable MgO doping level effect. Under the same Mg doping level, the diffusion in a Z-cut crystal is faster. The diffusivity decreases with the increase of the Mg doping level. This effect is qualitatively explained from the viewpoint of the Mg doping effect on concentration of the intrinsic defects in LiNbO3 crystal.