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The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
In rats, maternal exposure to restraint stress during pregnancy can induce abnormalities in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of the offspring. These effects are mediated by long-lasting hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, little is known about the potential effects of stress during pregnancy on metabolic systems. We examined the effect of restraint stress in pregnant mice on the liver function of their offspring. The offspring of stressed mothers showed significantly higher lipid accumulation in the liver after weaning than did the controls; this accumulation was associated with increased expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as alanine aminotransferase 2 diglyceride acyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucocorticoid receptor. Additionally, we observed increased levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an intercellular mediator that converts glucocorticoid from the inactive to the active form, in the foetal and postnatal periods. These results indicate that restraint stress in pregnancy in mice induces metabolic abnormalities via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-related pathways in the foetal liver. It is therefore possible that exposure to stress in pregnant women may be a risk factor for metabolic syndromes (e.g. fatty liver) in children.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
Estimation of 50% lethal doses from nuclear DNA contents and subsequent species sensitivity distribution analysis was performed to derive regional 5% hazardous doses (HD5) for major orders Anura (e.g., frogs) and Caudata (e.g., salamanders) of amphibians inhabiting Japan, Australia, France, Czech Republic, Canada and some US states, where nuclear power plants or uranium mines are located. The HD5 values ranged from 3.0 to 7.7 Gy for the Anura inhabiting there while they ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 Gy for the Caudata. Comparison of these results with the worldwide HD5s (5.3 Gy for the Anura and 3.3 Gy for the Caudata) suggests that benchmark values for the Asian and Oceanic Anura and the European Caudata can be set at higher doses than the global values. Regional differences should be, therefore, considered when benchmark values are derived for some taxonomic groups.
A series of MHfO3: Tm (M =Ca, Sr and Ba) composition spread films and superlattices (SLs) were quickly fabricated on SrTiO3 (001) substrate in the molecular layer-by-layer growth using combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring. Crystal structures and luminescence properties of composition-spread and SLs were evaluated by the concurrent X-ray diffractometer and cathode luminescence (CL), respectively. CL properties of the films were found strongly dependent on their composition and stacking sequence. Possible effect of the stress due to the film-substrate interaction on the CL property is discussed.
The heteroepitaxy of InP on Si substrates was investigated using MOCVD. A thin GaAs intermediate layer was used to alleviate the 8.4% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. With the use of this intermediate layer, four inch size, single domain InP epilayer with small residual stress was reproducibly grown on off-(100) oriented Si substrates. The etch pit density (EPD) of as-grown InP layer was 5x107~1x108 cm-2 . The post growth annealing of this epilayer at 800~850ºC in aPH3+H2 ambient reduced EPD to 1~2x107 cm-2
We evaluated structural and electrical characteristics of undoped poly-Si oxide films. Poly-Si films made by solid phase crystallization at 600-900°C from undoped amorphous Si films were oxidized to form oxide layers of 140nm thickness. We observed protuberances on the surface of poly-Si layers after oxidation. Poly-Si oxide layers also generated protuberances above the protuberances of poly-Si films. The number of protuberances per unit area is larger in the case of high temperature crystallization. The measurement of current through the poly-Si oxide films shows that the conductivity of poly-Si oxide films depends on crystallization temperature of poly-Si films in the case of positive gate bias. When the gate is biased negatively, current through the poly-Si oxide films remained almost constant regardless of crystallization temperature. We find that poly-Si crystallized at lower temperatures offers poly-Si oxide films of lower leakage current in the case of electron injection from undoped poly-Si layers. The lower leakage current is due to highness of energy barrier for electron at undoped poly-Si/poly-Si oxide interface.
Preparation processing to obtain 124 single phase films has been studied by MOCVD. The YBCO thin films which were fabricated on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates, respectively, were obtained under both conditions of Ts(temperature of susceptor)=800°C and Po2(oxygen partial pressure)=17.5torr. It was found that the oriented peaks of 124 c-axis and of 123 a-axis were more prominent than others at the composition ratio(Y/Ba/Cu=l.0/2.7/4.7), using the MgO(100) substrates. The 123 a-axis oriented grain was observed by using SEM and TEM. We have obtained thin films which were dominant in the 124 phase on the SrTiO3(100) substrates. The film surface morphology on the SrTiO3(100) substrate was smoother than that on the MgO(100) substrate. The origin of a-axis oriented grain growth was explained by the surface step(about 10 À) on MgO(100).
The growth of nanocrystalline materials has received much attention recently due to its importance in nanocrystalline thin film properties and fabrications. Research studies of this subject have so far focused on the face-centered-cubic metals. Two mechanisms, grain-rotation induced grain coalescence and curvature-driven grain-boundary migration are considered as the dominant mechanisms in the nanograin growth. In this work, we use molecular dynamics method to simulate the growth of Ni and Ni3Al alloy. We find the above mechanisms can describe the growth behavior well. A detailed comparison of the nanograin growth between the two systems is discussed in terms of grain rotation and grain sliding. We also study the temperature effect and the size effect in the nanograin growth. The tendency of twinning in the nanograin growth is discussed.
Chromophoric multilayer thin films exhibiting efficient second harmonic generation have been constructed on inorganic substrates via a stepwise layer-by-layer process using molecular self-assembly techniques. In each step, chemical species bearing appropriate functional groups form covalent bonds with functional groups deposited in the previous step. Bulk acentricity is achieved by the orientation of chromophore-containing layers outward from the substrate surface. A new chromophore having comparable hyperpolarizability but different steric and transparency characteristics than the stilbazolium chromophore used previously has been incorporated into self-assembled films. The large effects of octachlorotrisiloxane capping on the structure of these films have been investigated by second harmonic generation and X-ray reflectivity measurements. Novel in situ measurements of second harmonic generation efficiency as a function of chromophore layer growth are described and provide information useful for optimizing deposition conditions and understanding the film growth process.
Removal of the long-lived radionuclides from high-level waste (HLW) is a potential means not only for making wastes more acceptable in terms of long term hazards, but also for alleviating storage requirement. From these points, the authors are developing a method of partitioning actinides, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from HLW. A chemical flow-sheet has been constructed and experiments with actual HLW were initiated in 1982. Through the partitioning, active elements in HLW can be fractionated into 3 groups. Total volume of the solid materials of the 3 groups was calculated and found to be reduced to less than one-third of the volume of the vitrified material containing 10 wt% of fission products as oxide. Such volume reduction seems to facilitate the long term storage or the deep geological disposal of HLW.
We synthesized the highly ordered mesoporous thin films with alkyltrimethyl-ammonium (CnTMA+). The arrangement of mesopores was depend on the Si/surfactant ratio. The hexagonal(P6mm) arrangement was observed, when Surfactant/Si ratio was 1/10. Increasing the Surfactant/Si ratio to 1.6/10, the cubic (Pm3n) arrangements were observed. A steel vessel for the measurement of the nitrogen adsorption isotherms of thin film on the substrate was designed. It was found that mesopore arrangements in the film is more regular than that in the powder samples prepared by the same acidic synthesis conditions.
The catalytic interaction of noble metal and main group elements in Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and Pt/SbOx was investigated. The high temperature reduction produced RhGe and PtSb bimetallic particles in which Pt and Rh were electronically modified to retard catalytic activity. However, unique selective catalyses of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 for CO hydrogenation reaction to oxygenate compounds and for NO+CO reaction to N2 were found. Under the low temperature reduction of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and the high temperature calcination of Pt/SbOx, the oxide phases, GeO2 and SbOx, were stable and the selective reduction of ethylacetate to ethanol and the selective oxidation of iso-C4H10 to methacrolein were observed. The high selectivities were ascribed to synergistic interaction between the noble metals and the main group element oxides through the diffusion of adsorbed species and reaction intermediates. The possibility of chemical control of noble metal-catalyses by main group elements is discussed.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
An understanding of the dose-effect relationships of ionising radiation for nonhuman biota establishes important baselines for the radiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine the dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, growth and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta). Adult E. fetida were acutely irradiated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the subsequent survival, growth in wet weight and number of offspring were examined. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was 825 Gy, and the 10% and 50% effective doses (ED10 and ED50) for growth were 20.2 and 94.7 Gy, respectively. The ED10 and ED50 for reproduction were 3.3 and 11.1 Gy, respectively.
Previous studies have reported prefrontal cortex (PFC) pathophysiology in bipolar disorder.
We examined the hemodynamics of the PFC during resting and cognitive tasks in 29 patients with bipolar disorder and 27 healthy controls, matched for age, verbal abilities and education. The cognitive test battery consisted of letter and category fluency (LF and CF), Sets A and B of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM-A and RCPM-B) and the letter cancellation test (LCT). The tissue oxygenation index (TOI), the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration to total hemoglobin concentration, was measured in the bilateral PFC by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in HbO2 concentration were also measured.
The bipolar group showed slight but significant impairment in performance for the non-verbal tasks (RCPM-A, RCPM-B and LCT), with no significant between-group differences for the two verbal tasks (LF and CF). A group×task×hemisphere analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the TOI revealed an abnormal pattern of prefrontal oxygenation across different types of cognitive processing in the bipolar group. Post hoc analyses following a group×task×hemisphere ANOVA on HbO2 concentration revealed that the bipolar group showed a greater increase in HbO2 concentration in the LCT and in RCPM-B, relative to controls.
Both indices of cortical activation (TOI and HbO2 concentration) indicated a discrepancy in the PFC function between verbal versus non-verbal processing, indicating task-specific abnormalities in the hemodynamic control of the PFC in bipolar disorder.
The genealogy and diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene were investigated for Ostrinia furnacalis in Japan. A preliminary examination of mitochondrial lineages in China and the Philippines was also made. Two lineages (A and B) were found in the COII gene. Lineage A was frequent throughout the Japanese main islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu), while the frequency of lineage B varied among these islands. No clear patterns of geographical population structure were found. Population genetic features suggested that the O. furnacalis population harboring the lineage A mitochondria expanded in the recent past, while lineage B showed weak signals of a population expansion. It is not clear whether the two lineages of mtDNA evolved in separate or identical geographical regions. We discuss two hypotheses regarding the two lineages of mtDNA: a cryptic race/species hypothesis and a selective sweep hypothesis.