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Imprinted genes uniquely drive and support fetoplacental growth by controlling the allocation of maternal resources to the fetus and affecting the newborn’s growth. We previously showed that alterations of the placental imprinted gene expression are associated with suboptimal perinatal growth and respond to environmental stimuli including socio-economic determinants. At the same time, maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) has been shown to affect fetal growth. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that placental imprinted gene expression mediates the effects of MPSP on fetal growth in a well-characterized birth cohort, the Stress in Pregnancy (SIP) Study. We observed that mothers experiencing high MPSP deliver infants with lower birthweight (P=0.047). Among the 109 imprinted genes tested, we detected panels of placental imprinted gene expression of 23 imprinted genes associated with MPSP and 26 with birthweight. Among these genes, five imprinted genes (CPXM2, glucosidase alpha acid (GAA), GPR1, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 (SHANK2) and THSD7A) were common to the two panels. In multivariate analyses, controlling for maternal age and education and gestational age at birth and infant gender, two genes, GAA and SHANK2, each showed a 22% mediation of MPSP on fetal growth. These data provide new insights into the role that imprinted genes play in translating the maternal stress message into a fetoplacental growth pattern.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Infratemporal fossa abscess following odontogenic infection is not rare, and usually occurs as a sequela of dental disease. Infratemporal fossa abscess was previously treated with the combination of buccal incision and temporal incision, or via a transoral approach.
This paper reports a case of infratemporal fossa abscess in a 51-year-old female.
The abscess was drained transnasally via an endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy approach, preserving the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. The pain remitted the next day and trismus had diminished in one week.
The transnasal approach with endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is a direct, minimally invasive method that provides a direct field of view for drainage of infratemporal fossa abscess. This approach is recommended for infratemporal fossa abscess.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Only a few benign tumours of the middle ear have been reported to lead to the development of facial palsy. Here, we describe a patient with middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma and facial palsy.
Single case study.
A 61-year-old man presented with left-sided hearing impairment and incomplete left facial palsy. A tumour was confirmed to be occupying the epi- to mesotympanum and to be joined to the facial nerve. The tumour was removed along with facial nerve tissue, which was resected at its horizontal portion, and the remaining facial nerve was fixed by end-to-end anastomosis. Complete facial paralysis occurred after the operation, but the patient's House–Brackmann grade gradually improved to grade III. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the lymphangioma into the facial nerve tissue, together with mild neural atrophy of the facial nerve.
These findings suggested that tumour invasion was the cause of facial palsy in this patient.
We have studied the effect of the gas accretion flow on the distribution
of molecules in hot inner regions of young circumstellar disks.
The gas-phase reactions initiated by evaporation of icy mantle on
dust grains are calculated along the accretion flow, and
the molecular line emission is simulated using the obtained
Our results have shown that some evaporated molecules keep high
abundances and emit strong transition lines only when the accretion
velocity is high enough.
We have modelled a detailed physical structure of protoplanetary disks, taking into account X-ray and UV irradiation from a central star, as well as dust size growth and settling towards the disk midplane. In addition, we have calculated the level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen in the disks. As a result, we reproduce the observed strong H2 line flux if the disks are influenced by strong UV and X-ray irradiation. Also, the dust evolution changes the physical properties of the disk, and thus the H2 line ratios.
The Josephson map describes the nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by the standard map with a uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase-space portrait of the Josephson map are examined here on the basis of the associated tangent map. A numerical investigation of stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is compared with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated using the characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at far smaller values of the stochastic parameter than is the case of the standard map.
In order to compare the bubble dynamics of various quantum liquids, we performed the visual observation of a sound-induced bubble in a normal liquid 4He, pure superfluid 4He, and superfluid 3He–4He liquid mixtures of saturated and unsaturated 3He concentrations. When an acoustic wave pulse was applied to these liquids under saturated vapour pressure, a macroscopic bubble was generated on the surface of a piezoelectric transducer. For all liquids, the size of the bubble increased, as a higher voltage was applied to the transducer at a fixed temperature. In the normal 4He we observed a primary bubble surrounded with many small bubbles which ascended upward together. In contrast to normal phase, only one bubble was generated in the superfluid 4He, and its shape proved to be highly irregular with an ill-defined surface. In the 3He saturated superfluid mixture, we also observed a solitary bubble but with a nearly perfect spherical shape. The bubble in this mixture expanded on the transducer surface, grew to a maximum size of the order of 1 mm and then started shrinking. As the bubble detached from the transducer with shrinking, we clearly detected an origination of the upward jet flow which penetrated the bubble. The jet velocity in the liquid mixture was approximately 102–103 times smaller than in water. At the final stage of the process we could sometimes observe a vortex ring generation. It is interesting that, though the bubble size and time scale of the phenomenon differ from those in water, the behaviour in the collapsing process had much in common with the simulation study of the vortex ring generation in water. In addition, for the mixture with the unsaturated 3He concentration of about 25% at 600 mK, the shape of the upward jet was observed distinctly, using more precise measurement with shadowgraph method.
Wolbachia, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, is ubiquitously found in arthropods and filarial nematodes, and is known to manipulate the reproduction of its hosts in various ways, such as feminization, male killing, induction of parthenogenesis or induction of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We found that the Wolbachia infection frequencies of the butterfly Colias erate poliographus were high (85.7–100%) in seven Japanese populations. Crossing experiments and rearing revealed that the Wolbachia strain exhibited strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and perfect vertical transmission in C. erate poliographus. Moreover, a comparison of the survival rates between infected and cured broods suggested that Wolbachia infection had beneficial effects on host fitness. Our findings suggested that the high infection frequencies in Japanese populations have been accomplished by these advantageous traits of the Wolbachia strain. Furthermore, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme revealed that the Wolbachia in C. erate poliographus is a novel strain (ST141), belonging to supergroup B.
Two-dimensional (2-D) strain sensor utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is demonstrated. SAW devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor.
We have made a detailed model of the physical structure of protoplanetary disks, taking into account X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from a central star, as well as dust size growth and settling towards the disk midplane. Also, we calculate the level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen from the disks, which shows that the dust evolution changes the physical properties of the disk, and then the line ratios of the molecular hydrogen emission.
We construct a model of the physical structure of photoevaporating protoplanetary disks, and numerically calculate the coagulation and settling/evaporating process of dust particles in the disks. Our result show that (sub)micron-sized-dust-particles could evaporate with the gas, which leads to dispersal of infrared excess radiation from the disks.
Low k material with high deterrence ability of copper diffusion has been proposed to reduce the effective electrical resistance of copper wirings. Providing organic low k material with deterrence ability was attempted by adding a chemical agent that chemically combines with copper. The insulation lifetime of the low k film with benzotriazole (BTA) as the copper scavenger was about two orders of magnitude higher than that of BTA-free low k film, at the practical electric field strength of 0.1 MV/cm. The copper diffusion deterrence ability was clearly dependent on the ability of the copper scavenger.
A new passive and remote SAW sensor system having ID tag function is presented. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used as a chemical and physical sensor for measuring the environment. SAW devices have been also used as identification tags (ID tags). The majority of the work reported on SAW sensors to date has used Rayleigh mode SAW and are concerning a delay line. The other hand, it has been shown that the sensors utilizing the shear horizontal mode SAW (SH-SAW) can be designed to sense the liquid properties. The SH-SAW has the unique characteristic of complete reflection at a 90 degree edge normal to the direction of the propagation. This characteristic makes it possible to construct a reflective delay line using the edge reflection. The reflective delay line can be used for as passive and remote sensing.
In this paper, a passive and remote SAW sensor with a function of identification tags has been designed by using the reflective SH-SAW delay line. The reflective delay line was constructed on the 36 YX LiTaO3 substrate having a 90 degree edge normal to the direction of the SAW propagation. Passive and remote SAW sensor consists of several reflective delay lines having different propagation length. The passive sensor and ID tags were made by the multi-channel delay line. The responses of the sensor and ID tags using the edge reflection of SH-SAW are obtained in time domain. Several experiments were performed to verify the performances of the multi-channel edge reflection sensor. The basic characteristics of the reflective SAW sensor were obtained by measuring the amplitude and phase of reflected wave. The obtained results showed that the reflective SH-SAW sensor was very effective for sensing the physical and chemical properties.
Wireless systems are also suggested for the effective operation of the passive SAW sensor. A novel and simple electronic circuit system for accurately measuring the phase characteristics of responses form multi-channel is proposed. In the application, the reflective delay line has been mounted on cantilever to monitor the strain experimentally. The variation of the SH-SAW velocity on the delay line caused by a strain was measured as the passive SAW sensor response. The velocity varied in proportion to the strain applied to the propagation surface. The results showed that the passive sensor was very effective to measure the strain in a wireless mode and it was found that the system is very suitable to health and safety monitoring of building or airplane wing.
Finally it will be shown some applications of the wireless sensor with ID tags on the measurement of the conductivity and viscosity of same liquids.
Interfacial structures of c-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7–y (Y123) and Nd1+xBa2–xCu3O7–y (Nd123) films were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in conjunction with geometrical lattice matching and molecular orbital calculations. These films were formed on MgO(001) substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy. Despite the similarity in lattice constants between Y123 and Nd123, the in-plane orientation relationship (OR) to the substrates is different: film//substrate(I) for Y123 and film//substrate(II) for Nd123. From the results of HRTEM observations and image simulations, it was found that the Y123 and Nd123 films are terminated by BaO and CuO-chain layers at the interfaces, respectively. For both the Y123/MgO and Nd123/MgO systems, the OR(I) is assessed to be the most favorable in point of geometrical matching and the OR(II) is the second among the rotational misorientations on the film and MgO. The molecular orbital calculations reveal that the interface with the OR(II) and the CuO-chain layer termination is preferable in terms of covalent bonding for both the systems. Consequently, we suggest that the preferential interfacial structures are delicately determined by a balance of the geometrical and chemical factors at the interfaces, resulting in making the lowest interfacial free energies.
The heat-treatment retention time effect of carbonized polyvinylidenechloride (PVDC) was investigated. Homogeneous PVDC with a crystallite size of 267 Å was used as a precursor material for an electric double-layer capacitor electrode. The P-120m material, which was heat treated for 120 min at 700 °C, shows a larger specific capacitance than any other material in this study. It shows the largest values reported up to now, reaching values as high as 100.2 F/g for a two-electrode system, which is equivalent to 400.8 F/g in a conventional three-compartment electrode system. It is difficult to distinguish the difference in the pore-size distribution by way of gas adsorption as the retention time is varied. However, the difference can be clarified using a novel method based on the analysis of transmission electron microscopy images. As the retention time for heat treatment increases, the pore size grows through the coalescence of small pores. Furthermore, a new concept for the electric double-layer capacitance is suggested on the basis of analysis of the transmission electron microscopy observations.
NdBa2Cu3O7-x (NdBCO) superconducting films were successfully grown on MgO substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) using YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) seed films which have lower peritectic temperatures. Microstructural characterizations using optical and electron microscopes revealed that most of the seed grains decomposed at the high processing temperature and dissolved when they touched the solution. The NdBCO grains were formed first by the quasi-homoepitaxial growth of NdBCO units on the few surviving YBCO seed grains and then grew pendently to cover the large bare surface areas of the MgO substrates quickly by lateral overgrowth. A micrometer-thick melt layer was entrapped between the film and the substrate. Through the few links provided by the surviving seed grains, a stable film/substrate orientation relationship could still be maintained. A semiquantitative analysis was done for the lateral overgrowth process, and two different lateral overgrowth stages were observed with about 50 times difference in the lateral overgrowth rate. Then, a semiquantitative understanding for the entire YBCO-seeded NdBCO LPE growth process was finally reached.
We have developed a novel growth method for single-crystalline film of natural superlattice oxides and named the method “Reactive Solid-Phase Epitaxy (R-SPE).” Single-crystalline thin films of homologous series In-GaO3(ZnO)m (m=integer) are fabricated by the R-SPE method and its growth mechanism, especially a role of ZnO epitaxial layer, is clarified. High-temperature annealing of bi-layer films consisting of an amorphous InGaO3(ZnO)5 layer deposited at room temperature and an epitaxial ZnO layer on YSZ substrate allows for the growth of single-crystalline film with a controlled chemical composition. The ZnO layer plays an essential role in determining the crystallographic orientation, while the thickness ratio between the two layers controls the film composition.