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IF no substitute is negotiated for the Brussels Recast Regulation (1215/2012) on “Brexit”, the provisions in the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) for permission to serve claims out of the jurisdiction may assume a greater significance in future cross-border litigation. So the timing of the Supreme Court's decision in Four Seasons Holding Inc. v Brownlie  UKSC 80,  1 W.L.R. 192 is apposite.
Lombardy has been the centre of northern Italy not only geographically but also, for long periods in its history, politically and economically. It was always the heart of the Italian kingdom, originally named the regnum Langobardorum. Its political centre and capital was initially Pavia, but the nearby metropolis of Milan and its archbishops became increasingly important, as demonstrated in the coronation of the kings of Italy in the venerable Milanese abbey church of Sant'Ambrogio. The growing importance of Milan coincided with the weakening of the centralised royal administration in the region and the crystallisation of communal structures and institutions during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Tension between Milan and Pavia alongside the ascent of the former determined the political framework of Lombardy for centuries, while the rise of other important cities in the region such as Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lodi and Mantua completed the picture. In the Middle Ages, the geographical concept of Longobardia or Lombardia extended beyond the confines of the modern region to comprehend such cities as Novara, Vercelli and Tortona in the Piedmont and Piacenza and Parma in Emilia. Contemporaries even described places as far away as Asti, Modena and Reggio as Lombard. Together with modern Lombardy, they formed a large but only vaguely defined region referred to here as ‘greater Lombardy’.
The traditional mints of Pavia and Milan also determined the pattern of the currency in the region. Pavia and its coinage were more influential in the west, reaching far into Liguria and the Piedmont, while Milan was more important in central and eastern areas. Milan's dominance over the other Lombard mints began to extend westwards in the thirteenth century,but it was only with the formation of the Milan-centred Visconti state in the fourteenth century that the metropolis gained undisputed supremacy. The development of the coinage in Lombardy thus mirrored political circumstances. From the 1420s, however, the expansion of Venice on to the so-called Terraferma, the mainland beyond the Venetian lagoons, stretched into Lombardy with the conquest of Brescia, Bergamo and Lodi.
The difficulties inherent in selecting the most suitable forms for personal and place names in a reference work of this sort are discussed in MEC 1, xxi; MEC 14, xix–xx; and most recently in MEC 6, xxvi–xxxi. In this volume, the approach differs from the one adopted for MEC 1 and 14 in that English is used for personal names only for kings, emperors and popes. For the most part, other individuals are referred to by the ‘national’ forms of their names, which has become more common in the literature in English over the past few decades. Most rulers in northern Italy during the period under consideration are thus identified by the modern Italian forms of their names, but there are some notable exceptions. Foreign rulers who exercised authority over parts of northern Italy at one time or another are identified either by the national forms of their names or, in the case of foreign kings or emperors, by the English equivalents. The Angevin kings of Naples who governed parts of the Piedmont in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and the kings of France who sometimes ruled over Asti, Genoa and Milan are thus identified by the English forms of their names. In some cases, however, it is more appropriate to identify local rulers in northern Italy by their German names. The early patriarchs of Aquileia and the counts of Gorizia and Tyrol were Germanic and ruled over parts of northern Italy where Germanic peoples probably made up significant proportions of the population. In Italy's South Tyrol, even today, some three-quarters of the inhabitants speak German as their first language.
For place names, common English forms are used whenever they exist – such as Genoa rather than Genova, Milan rather than Milano, Venice rather than Venezia and so on – but conventional modern forms are otherwise used. This volume therefore uses the modern Cortemilia instead of the older form Cortemiglia, which is perhaps more familiar in the numismatic literature, and Masserano instead of the now antiquated Messerano. In discussing the coinage of the counts of Tyrol, both German and Italian forms are often given for the places covered, first the German and then the Italian in brackets since German was and still is the predominant language in the region.
Coins were occasionally given official names in mint ordinances, proclamations, etc., but are more often described as denari or grossi, terms that initially implied a specific identity or value but were also used in the general sense of ‘coin’, so that some further description was often necessary, e.g. grosso da dodici denari (‘groat of twelve pennies’).Official names were in any case supplemented by a variety of popular names, often of a mocking character.
The list that follows covers the medieval coin names of northern Italy, together with a few names of weights and of coins that did not originate in the area but were familiar there and occur in its records. Some coin names are based on terms of value, but the majority, at least initially, referred to specific coins. Confusion can arise from the way in which coin names that were initially specific, and based on the type (e.g. ambrosino) or value (e.g. sesino), could be generalised to cover coins of a particular size or denomination and then used for ones on which these particular features are absent or the values to which they referred no longer held good.
The most useful collection of Italian coin names and numismatic terms is in Martinori (1915), though its identifications and explanations are not always correct. For coin names alone, there is now also the glossary in Travaini (2003) for which the author draws directly on coin lists in medieval arithmetic tracts and merchants'manuals. The strong Mediterranean orientation inMateu y Llopis (1946) and the author's familiarity with both Spanish and Italian medieval documentary records likewise makes this a valuable reference. For similar reasons, the glossary in MEC 6 on the coinage of the Iberian peninsula is also helpful. The better German and French numismatic dictionaries are often useful for northern Italy, where cross-border influence was sometimes considerable (Schrotter 1930; Belaubre 1996; Amandry 2001). Etymologies proposed in standard dictionaries, however, are often unsatisfactory and should not be relied upon, since their authors have usually known little or nothing about the coins. Edler's otherwise very useful glossary of medieval Italian business terms (1934) pays little attention to coinage.