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Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
Little is known about gender differences in the long-term outcomes of
people with schizophrenia living in the community.
To explore gender differences in the 14-year outcome of people with
schizophrenia in rural China.
A 14-year follow-up study among a 1994 cohort (n = 510)
of participants with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County,
Chengdu, China. All participants and their informants were followed up in
2004 and 2008 using the Patients Follow-up Schedule.
Compared with female participants, male participants were significantly
younger, had significantly higher rates of mortality, suicide and
homelessness, and poorer family and social support. There was no
significant gender difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
scores, previous suicide attempts, those never treated, previous hospital
admission or inability to work. Longer duration of illness was associated
with functional decline and comparatively poorer family economic
The long-term outcomes of men with schizophrenia is worse than those of
women with the disorder in rural China. Higher mortality, suicide and
homelessness rates in men may contribute partly to the higher prevalence
of schizophrenia in women in China. Policies on social and family support
and gender-specific intervention strategies for improving long-term
outcomes should be developed for people with this disorder.
Many people with schizophrenia remain untreated in the community.
Long-term mortality and suicidal behaviour among never-treated
individuals with schizophrenia in the community are unknown.
To explore 10-year mortality and suicidal behaviour among never-treated
individuals with schizophrenia.
We used data from a 10-year prospective follow-up study (1994–2004) among
people with schizophrenia in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
The mortality rate for never-treated individuals with schizophrenia was
2761 per 100 000 person-years during follow-up. There were no significant
differences of rates of suicide and all-cause mortality between
never-treated and treated individuals. The standardised mortality ratio
(SMR) for never-treated people was 10.4 (95% CI 7.2–15.2) and for treated
individuals 6.5 (95% CI 5.2–8.5). Compared with treated people,
never-treated individuals were more likely to be older, poorer, have a
longer duration of illness, marked symptoms and fewer family members.
The never-treated individuals have similar mortality to and a higher
proportion of marked symptoms than treated people, which may reflect the
poor outcome of the individuals without treatment. The higher rates of
mortality, homelessness and never being treated among people with
schizophrenia in low- and middle-income nations might challenge presumed
wisdom about schizophrenia outcomes in these countries.
N6 medium, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and BNBN medium were adopted in tissue cultures of Nipponbare (japonica) scutellum for performance comparison. Results indicated that, among the three kinds of culture media, the NB medium worked best in callus induction and gene transformation and was most suitable for tissue culture of Nipponbare scutellum. Based on this, the elicitor-encoding gene pemG1 from Magnaporthe grisea was introduced into the genome of Nipponbare via the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic rice plants were obtained. The integration, transcription and expression of pemG1 in rice were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Northern blot and Western blot, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that the transgenes were segregated normally in the progenies.
A new reliable embedded atom method potential for hydrogen in body-centered-cubic (bcc) iron is developed by fitting not only to the properties of hydrogen in a perfect bcc iron lattice but also to the properties of hydrogen binding to vacancies. The validity of the potential is examined by calculating the properties of hydrogen trap binding to surfaces and dislocations that are in good accordance with the experiments. A brief application of the potential by molecular dynamic simulation reveals that hydrogen accumulated ahead of the crack tip induces serious hydrogen embrittlement.
To investigate intrasession and intersession reliability of balance tests in children with or without disabilities, 50 children without disabilities (ND) and 36 children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged from 5 to 12 years were tested. Intrasession reliability of postural stability of the Smart Balance Master System and one-leg standing test were assessed in both groups and intersession reliability of the Smart Balance Master System and balance subtest of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) were assessed in ND children. Intersession reliability of the postural stability test in ND children, obtained using the Smart Balance Master System, was of moderate to good reliability in centre target (CT), sway vision (SV), eyes open and sway surface (EOSS), and sway vision and sway surface (SVSS; ICC 0.72 to 0.84). In children with CP, intrasession reliability was high in CT (ICC 1). One-leg standing tests in both groups also had moderate to good intersession reliability (ICC 0.56 to 0.99). Agreement of failure score of lateral rhythmic shifting (LRS) at 1 second and 2 seconds pace was 85% and 93% respectively in ND children. Within the balance subtest of BOTMP, only two items had 100% agreement. Results suggest that postural stability tests in four conditions (CT, SV, EOSS, and SVSS), LRS, one-leg standing, and walking on a line are reliable and can be used to monitor balance control in ND children. Postural stability in CT condition and one-leg standing test are reliable in children with CP. Further study is needed to establish more reliable balance tests for children with CP.
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