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The leakage of hazardous chemicals and toxic volatile substances in the atmosphere may cause serious consequences such as explosion and poisoning. To identify the unknown leakage locations and gas compositions, a mobile robot system to trace the leak source in the outdoor was investigated. First, two bionic searching algorithms, Zigzag and Silkworm algorithms, were tested with outdoor experiments for locating the leak source. The results showed that the locating errors of these two algorithms were within 0.5 m in 10 by 20 m search space, but the failing ratio of Zigzag and Silkworm algorithm was still high (about 40–50%). Therefore, an improved tracing algorithm combining the Silkworm and Zigzag algorithm, called as zigzag–Silkworm algorithm, was proposed. Compared with Silkworm and Zigzag algorithms, zigzag–Silkworm algorithm had a higher success ratio of 80% in outdoor source tracing tests, and the searching efficiency was enhanced, the efficiency parameter L: L0 has improved from 2.58 for Silkworm and 2.66 for Zigzag to 2.17 for zigzag–Silkworm. Then, in order to identify the composition of the leaked gases during the source tracing, an artificial olfaction system (AOS) based on the gas sensor array and support vector machine was set on the mobile robot. The test results in the source tracing experiments with ammonia and ethanol emissions indicated that the recognition accuracy of emission gases reached to 99% with AOS equipped on the robot. Therefore, the mobile robot system equipped with the zigzag–Silkworm algorithm and the AOS is feasible to trace the leakage source and identify the emission composition in the outdoor leakage event with good performance in efficiency and accuracy although some underlying problems still need to be addressed in future work.
When governments and healthcare providers offer people cash rewards for weight loss, an assumption is that cash rewards are versatile, working equally well for everyone – for example, for all genders. No research to date has tested for gender difference in response to financial incentives for weight loss. We show in an randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n = 472) that cash incentives for weight loss only worked for males. The RCT consisted of a 3-month, self-administered online weight loss program. Offering a US$150 incentive for a 5% weight loss more than tripled the proportion of males who were successful, compared with a no-incentive Control arm (20.9% vs. 5.9%). On average, males in the incentive arm lost 2.4% of weight over 3 months, compared with 0.9% in the Control arm. The same incentive had no such effect on females: The average weight loss in the incentive arm was not significantly different than in the Control (1.03% and 1.44%, respectively), nor was the proportion of participants meeting the 5% weight loss goal (8.6% and 8.7%, respectively). This study shows that males respond better than females to financial incentives for weight loss.
To determine the effects of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on embryo morphokinetic parameters, cleavage patterns and embryo quality, this retrospective study analyzed 151 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (1152 embryos collected) between November 2016 and June 2019. SDF was assessed using sperm chromatin dispersion. The cycles were divided into two groups based on the SDF rate: SDF < 15% (n = 114) and SDF ≥ 15% (n = 37). The embryo morphokinetic parameters, cleavage patterns, and embryo quality were compared between the two groups. The morphokinetic parameters tPNf, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t8 were achieved significantly earlier in the SDF < 15% group compared with in the SDF ≥ 15% group. The fertilization and 2PN rates seemed to be significantly higher in the SDF < 15% group compared with in the SDF ≥ 15% group, while the abnormal cleavage rates were similar. However, a significantly higher rate of chaotic cleavage (CC) was observed in the SDF ≥ 15% group. The D3 high-quality embryo and available embryo rates were similar between the two groups. The blastocyst formation, high-quality blastocyst, and available blastocyst rates in the SDF < 15% group were significantly higher than those in the SDF ≥ 15% group. With an increase in SDF level, the chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates tended to decrease, while the miscarriage rate increased. This study demonstrated that SDF ≥ 15% reduces the fertilization rate of ICSI cycles and affects certain morphokinetic parameters. A higher SDF level can also induce a higher rate of CC, with subsequent decreases in the blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst quality.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) is a serious pest of agriculture that does particular damage to Gramineae crops in Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Metamorphosis is a key developmental stage in insects, although the genes underlying the metamorphic transition in M. separata remain largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of five stages; mature larvae (ML), wandering (W), and pupation (1, 5, and 10 days after pupation, designated P1, P5, and P10) to identify transition-associated genes. Four libraries were generated, with 22,884, 23,534, 26,643, and 33,238 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the ML-vs-W, W-vs-P1, P1-vs-P5, and P5-vs-P10, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that genes regulating the biosynthesis of the membrane and integral components of the membrane, which includes the cuticular protein (CP), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, were enriched. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that DEGs were enriched in the metabolic pathways. Of these DEGs, thirty CP, seventeen 20E, and seven JH genes were differentially expressed across the developmental stages. For transcriptome validation, ten CP, 20E, and JH-related genes were selected and verified by real-time PCR quantitative. Collectively, our results provided a basis for further studies of the molecular mechanism of metamorphosis in M. separata.
Dying is mostly seen as a dreadful event, never a happy experience. Yet, as palliative care physicians, we have seen so many patients who remained happy despite facing death. Hence, we conducted this qualitative study to explore happiness in palliative care patients at the University of Malaya Medical Centre.
Twenty terminally ill patients were interviewed with semi-structured questions. The results were thematically analyzed.
Eight themes were generated: the meaning of happiness, connections, mindset, pleasure, health, faith, wealth, and work. Our results showed that happiness is possible at the end of life. Happiness can coexist with pain and suffering. Social connections were the most important element of happiness at the end of life. Wealth and work were given the least emphasis. From the descriptions of our patients, we recognized a tendency for the degree of importance to shift from the hedonic happiness to eudaimonic happiness as patients experienced a terminal illness.
Significance of results
To increase the happiness of palliative care patients, it is crucial to assess the meaning of happiness for each patient and the degree of importance for each happiness domain to allow targeted interventions.
Understanding the extent of aerosol-based transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for tailoring interventions for control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple studies have reported the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in air samples, but only one study has successfully recovered viable virus, although it is limited by its small sample size.
We aimed to determine the extent of shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory aerosols from COVID-19 patients.
In this observational air sampling study, air samples from airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and a community isolation facility (CIF) housing COVID-19 patients were collected using a water vapor condensation method into liquid collection media. Samples were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and qRT-PCR-positive samples were tested for viability using viral culture.
Samples from 6 (50%) of the 12 sampling cycles in hospital rooms were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including aerosols ranging from <1 µm to >4 µm in diameter. Of 9 samples from the CIF, 1 was positive via qRT-PCR. Viral RNA concentrations ranged from 179 to 2,738 ORF1ab gene copies per cubic meter of air. Virus cultures were negative after 4 blind passages.
Although SARS-CoV-2 is readily captured in aerosols, virus culture remains challenging despite optimized sampling methodologies to preserve virus viability. Further studies on aerosol-based transmission and control of SARS-CoV-2 are needed.
In this article, we discuss the backgrounds and technical details about several smart manufacturing projects in a tier-one electronics manufacturing facility. We devise a process to manage logistic forecast and inventory preparation for electronic parts using historical data and a recurrent neural network to achieve significant improvement over current methods. We present a system for automatically qualifying laptop software for mass production through computer vision and automation technology. The result is a reliable system that can save hundreds of man-years in the qualification process. Finally, we create a deep learning-based algorithm for visual inspection of product appearances, which requires significantly less defect training data compared to traditional approaches. For production needs, we design an automatic optical inspection machine suitable for our algorithm and process. We also discuss the issues for data collection and enabling smart manufacturing projects in a factory setting, where the projects operate on a delicate balance between process innovations and cost-saving measures.
There is ongoing debate regarding the relationship between clinical symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The present study aimed to explore the potential relationships between symptoms, with an emphasis on negative symptoms, and social and non-social cognition.
Hierarchical cluster analysis with k-means optimisation was conducted to characterise clinical subgroups using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms in n = 130 SSD participants. Emergent clusters were compared on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, which measures non-social cognition and emotion management as well as demographic and clinical variables. Spearman’s correlations were then used to investigate potential relationships between specific negative symptoms and emotion management and non-social cognition.
Four distinct clinical subgroups were identified: 1. high hallucinations, 2. mixed symptoms, 3. high negative symptoms, and 4. relatively asymptomatic. The high negative symptom subgroup was found to have significantly poorer emotion management than the high hallucination and relatively asymptomatic subgroups. No further differences between subgroups were observed. Correlation analyses revealed avolition-apathy and anhedonia-asociality were negatively correlated with emotion management, but not non-social cognition. Affective flattening and alogia were not associated with either emotion management or non-social cognition.
The present study identified associations between negative symptoms and emotion management within social cognition, but no domains of non-social cognition. This relationship may be specific to motivation, anhedonia and apathy, but not expressive deficits. This suggests that targeted interventions for social cognition may also result in parallel improvement in some specific negative symptoms.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
Most academic posts are currently applied for through an online portal called Oriel (www.oriel.nhs.uk). Although it may seem obvious, note that online submission portals are timed down to the second. There is no mercy or defence for late submission – it will not be accepted. Submission of the online application is time consuming, especially if you are applying to more than one academic unit. We would recommend submitting the online application at least 24 hours ahead of the deadline to avoid the fallout of any potential technical meltdown. Also, as a word of caution, you should present your achievements well, but being untruthful is wrong and is a General Medical Council (GMC)-notifiable offence.
The Walport Report in 2005 identified the need to improve the training and fostering of academic clinicians. To this purpose, an Integrated Academic Training Pathway (IATP) was designed – a model that has been adopted in various forms throughout the UK (Figure 1.1). More than a decade later, the Academic Foundation Programme (AFP), Academic Clinical Fellowship (ACF), and Academic Clinical Lectureship (ACL) posts remain fiercely competitive.