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To determine the prevalence of and associated factors for overweight, especially to determine the relationship between the intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a seasoning and overweight in Vietnam.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of Vietnamese adults aged ≥20 years in 2008. Dietary intake was assessed by the 24 h recall method for 3 d. MSG intake was evaluated by the weighing method on three consecutive days. Physical activity was assessed based on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire recommended by the WHO. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥ 23·0 kg/m2. Other characteristics such as age and lifelong occupation were determined by a structured questionnaire.
Some rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Thua Thien Hue Province and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
A total of 1528 adults living in surveyed areas were randomly selected by the multistage cluster sampling method.
The prevalence of overweight was 27·9 %, and 81·0 % of participants were MSG users. Average MSG intake was 2·2 (sd 1·8) g/d. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with overweight were age, region of residence, lifelong occupation, physical activity and intakes of energy, carbohydrates, saturated fat and animal protein. There was no significant association between MSG intake and overweight.
The study demonstrated that overweight was not associated with MSG intake in Vietnamese adults. Further longitudinal studies should be done in different populations to determine the relationship between MSG and overweight.
To assess the folate and vitamin B12 status of a group of Vietnamese women of reproductive age and to estimate the rate of neural tube defects (NTD) based on red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations.
Design and subjects
A representative sample of non-pregnant women (15–49 years) living in Hanoi City (n 244) and Hai Duong Province (n 245).
RBC folate, plasma vitamin B12 and plasma holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), a sensitive indicator of vitamin B12 status.
Mean (95 % CI) concentrations of RBC folate, plasma B12 and plasma holoTC were 856 (837, 876) nmol/l, 494 (475, 513) pmol/l and 78 (74, 82) pmol/l, respectively. Only 3 % and 4 % of women had plasma B12 and holoTC concentrations indicative of deficiency. No woman had an RBC folate concentration indicative of deficiency (<317 nmol/l). Only 47 % of women had an RBC folate concentration ≥905 nmol/l. Accordingly, we predict the NTD rate in these regions of Vietnam to be 14·7 (14·2, 15·1) per 10 000 pregnancies.
There was no evidence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency among this population of Vietnamese women. However, suboptimal folate status may be placing three out of five women at increased risk of NTD. Reductions in NTD rates are still possible and women would benefit from additional folic acid during the periconceptional period from either supplements or fortified foods.
To examine the effect of community-based nutrition education intervention on calcium intake and bone mass in Vietnamese postmenopausal women.
A controlled trial was conducted in two groups as intervention and control. The intervention group was given nutrition education during 18 months to improve calcium intake, while the control subjects had the usual diet. Calcium intake and bone mass were evaluated every 6 months. Bone mass was assessed by speed of sound (SOS) at calcaneus, referred to as quantitative ultrasound measurement. Anthropometric indices and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined at baseline and at the end of intervention.
Two rural communes of Hai Duong province located in the Red River Delta in Vietnam.
A total of 140 women aged 55–65 years, who were more than 5 years postmenopausal and with low calcium intake (<400 mg/d), were recruited. After 18 months of intervention, 108 women completed the study.
Calcium intake in the intervention group had increased significantly (P < 0·01) while it had no significant changes in controls. SOS values were not changed significantly in the intervention subjects while it decreased significantly by 0·5 % in the controls (P < 0·01). The intervention led to a decrease in serum PTH by 12 % (P < 0·01). In the controls, there was an increase in serum PTH by 32 % (P < 0·001).
Nutrition education intervention was effective in improving calcium intake and retarding bone loss in the studied subjects.
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