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Flight of the range caterpillar occurred predominantly at dusk in the grasslands of eastern New Mexico in 1979 and 1980. The restricted period of flight in the evening corresponded to cool temperatures which probably favored mating success. Changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure had little effect on the number of moths flying from day to day. Most females oviposited within 10 m of the site of pupal eclosion.
Sustaining the regular flow of water from mountain forests is important for downstream stakeholders in seasonally dry tropical countries, and a watershed payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme that links rural ecosystem service providers to urban water users through economic transfers may help to maintain water supply and forest habitat. A CARE/WWF project in the Uluguru Mountains of Tanzania has established a pilot watershed PES scheme. We trace the development of this scheme and outline its initial impacts. Memoranda of Understanding between companies in Dar es Salaam (the downstream water users) and farmers in the mountains provide the framework to deliver tangible financial benefits to local people, help change patterns of land use and potentially improve water quality. A number of lessons learned from this project are relevant for similar schemes elsewhere in the region. Overcoming the various challenges is essential for expanding the current pilot project to a scale where it delivers measurable changes in water quality for downstream users.
Hate crime is always going to be a historically and culturally contingent social construct, such that the concept varies radically around the world. Although, the extent of hate crime is notoriously difficult to determine, in England and Wales, figures are collected on racially and religiously motivated offences under section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991. Many theories from many different disciplines have been used to explain hate crime. For example, those of perceived Middle Eastern appearance suffered intense public, enforcement and media attention, plus a rise in victimization, after the Oklahoma City bombing and the bombing of the World Trade Center. We need to be critical of the term 'hate crime' even as an adequate descriptor of 'bias-motivated behaviour'. The key gap in knowledge is the failure to examine the specificity of the crime experiences of the diverse victims of 'bias crime' and the impact on society.
The report is focused on excavations in a suite of four rooms in the villa dating to the late third or early fourth century, associated with a plunge-pool excavated in the nineteenth century; the excavations were undertaken in advance of consolidation work. The rooms overlay a second- century bath-house also known from earlier work. The most important find was a hoard of fourth-century counterfeit coins which had been deposited in one of the rooms after it had gone out of use.