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Clinical psychology is the psychological specialty that provides mental and behavioral health care for individuals and families, seeking to improve persons’ mental health, physical health and quality of life. Clinical psychology integrates science, theory and clinical experience as a means to understand, prevent and relieve distress and dysfunction and promote wellbeing and personal development. Personality is inherently intertwined with outcomes related to health and quality of life; therefore, an understanding of personality is of fundamental importance to the goals of clinical psychology. There was a time when the importance of personality – if not its very existence – were called into question. Some contended that behaviors were merely situationally specific responses to environmental stimuli rather than the result of any stable dispositions (Mischel, 1968). This period of doubt and skepticism has long since passed, as it has become undeniably evident that personality traits are not only real but are of clinical significance. The purpose of the current chapter is to present the predominant model of personality (the Five-Factor Model [FFM]), and indicate its importance to the development of psychopathology, including in particular the personality disorders. The implications of the particular importance of personality to the development of psychopathology are then discussed (e.g., perhaps treatment should begin early and focus on personality itself).
BD is a 34-year-old semi-professional rugby union player and a part-time schoolteacher. Three years ago she suffered three concussions during one season and required a prolonged period of rest. Following an extended RTP protocol, which involved a month away from any rugby contact and a gradual increase in physical activity, she was integrated back into the team environment although she always thought she never reached her previous level of performance.
FB is a 53-year-old Caucasian male living in the USA. He had played professional football in the NFL until his thirties and in retirement had worked as a coach. He has two grown up children who have now left home. He is not currently working and lives with his wife of 28 years. He was initially reviewed by his family doctor in response to his wife’s concerns. Although his participation in this initial consultation was minimal it was noted that his personality seemed to have coarsened and there were significant changes in his behaviour. As a result he was referred to a psychiatrist for a more detailed assessment. He only agreed to attend this assessment after much encouragement from his family and friends although he had admitted privately to a friend that ‘something was not quite right’. The report from this psychiatric assessment is set out below.
There is increasing recognition of the mental health needs of elite athletes and sports professionals. The first of its kind, this important new book draws on lived experience from professional athletes bringing together the latest evidence-based research on severe mental illness recognition and management within elite sport. Each chapter focuses on a different sport with a case-study example to guide you through diagnosis and developing a biopsychosocial management plan, followed by self-assessment tools at the end of each case to help consolidate your learning. Each chapter has been co-authored by a mix of psychiatrists, sports medicine specialists and allied health care professionals to bring a diverse range of professional opinions and insights relating to optimising athlete mental health. Each chapter also features the unique perspective of a professional athlete from that sport, to gain insight from lived experience.
This paper describes a condition termed post-flight confusion using anecdotal and clinical observations. It reviews research from the fields of aviation and altitude medicine and how this could apply to some physiological changes that happen during commercial flights. The collection of symptoms observed is similar to those of delirium. More research is needed to validate these observations, to identify the risks of flying for older people and to consider not only how to minimise these risks but whether this situation contributes to our knowledge about the aetiologies of delirium and dementias.
Air travel is now a common feature of most of our elderly population's lives. There is little by way of warnings, rules or recommendations for our patients with psychiatric diagnoses, in particular dementia, who intend to travel by plane, in contrast to other specialties. In this article I highlight an adverse outcome of long-haul air travel as a result of delirium and resulting accelerated decline in overall cognitive function. I review literature related to the topic and suggest ways to minimise precipitating factors for stressors prior to and during flights. This article suggests that more thought should be given to the title question.
We examine the development of stable bimetal interfaces in nanolayered composites in severe plastic deformation. Copper-niobium multilayers of varying layer thicknesses from several micrometers to 10 nanometers (nm) were fabricated via accumulative roll bonding (ARB). Investigation of their 5-parameter character and atomic scale structure finds that when layer thicknesses refine well below one micrometer, the interfaces self-organize to a few interface orientation relationships. With atomic scale and crystal plasticity modeling, we identify that the two controlling factors that determine whether an interface is stable under high strain rolling are orientation stability of the bicrystal and interface formation energy. A figure-of-merit is introduced that not only predicts the development of the prevailing interfaces but also explains why other interfaces did not develop. Through a suite of nanomechanical and bulk test results, we show that ARB composites containing these stable interfaces are found to have exceptional hardness (∼4.5 GPa) and strength (∼2 GPa).