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Dysregulation in hepatic lipid synthesis by excess dietary carbohydrate intake are often relevant with the occurrence of fatty liver, and therefore the thorough understanding of the regulation of lipid deposition and metabolism seems crucial to search for potential regulatory targets. In the present study, we examined TG accumulation, lipid metabolism-related genes expression, the enzyme activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes, the protein levels of transcription factors or genes involving lipogenesis in the livers of yellow catfish fed five dietary carbohydrate sources, such as glucose, corn starch, sucrose, potato starch and dextrin, respectively. Generally speaking, compared to other carbohydrate sources, dietary glucose promoted the TG accumulation, up-regulated the lipogenic enzyme activities and gene expressions, and down-regulated mRNA expression of genes involved in lipolysis and SUMO modification pathways. Further studies found that SREBP1, key transcriptional factors relevant with lipogenic regulation, was modified by SUMO1. Mutational analyses found two important sites for sumoylation modification (K254R and K264R) in SREBP1. Mutant SREBPs lacking lysine 264 up-regulated the transactivation capacity on an SREBP-responsive promoter. Glucose reduced the SUMOylation level of SREBP1 and promoted the protein expression of SREBP1 and its target gene SCD1, indicating that SUMOylation of SREBP1 mediated glucose-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Our study elucidated the molecular mechanism of dietary glucose increasing hepatic lipid deposition and found that the SREBP-dependent transactivation was regulated by SUMO1 modification, which served as a new target for the transcriptional programs governing lipid metabolism.
Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys is a common method to improve anchoring of bone tissue and implants in hard tissue engineering applications. In the current work, a combination of chemical and physical methods (anodization and physical vapor deposition) was used to roughen the titanium surface and deposit iron (Fe) on the surface of titanium at different thicknesses. The optimized thickness of 100 Å was selected for mechanical and biological characterization. We found that anodization increases the surface roughness of Ti from 21 ± 0 to 229 ± 9 nm, whereas Fe deposition does not change it significantly. Our results also showed that surface modification of Ti by anodization increases the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells at both time points, whereas Fe-deposited samples showed the lowest cellular activity. These results suggest that Fe-deposited Ti implants may be suitable candidates for patients with osteosarcoma, as the proliferation of malignant cells decreases in the presence of Fe.
The advantage of alcohol–calcium method on the formation and the stability of vaterite against ethanol–water binary solvents (EWBS) method was studied through comparative experiment. The polymorphs and morphologies of CaCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that vaterite slowly decreases from 90.4 to 82.5% as increasing aging time from 0 to 1320 min in alcohol–calcium system, while quickly decreases from 46.5% to 0% at the same aging time in EWBS system. The similar variation as reaction temperature was found in both systems. SEM images indicate that calcite presents its typical rhombohedral morphology in both systems, while the morphologies of vaterite particles in two systems are different. In alcohol–calcium system, small vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into spherical microparticles, and these microparticles become porous, loose, and irregular, even incomplete, as increasing aging time and reaction temperature, while in EWBS system, vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into irregular microparticles. The advantage of alcohol–calcium method was discussed from the formation of the complex compound CaCl2·n(C2H5OH) in alcohol and its decomplexation in aqueous medium.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) Pb–Zn metallogenic province is one of the most productive areas of Pb–Zn resources in China. The Fule deposit occurs in Permian carbonate and contains Pb–Zn reserves exceeding 1 Mt. To investigate the sulphur source, in situ S isotopic analysis of sphalerite and pyrite was carried out using nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ34S values of the sulphide minerals range from +16.1‰ to +23.0‰, higher than that of marine sulphates hosted in Permian carbonate rocks (+11‰), but similar to that of sulphates over a broader area (+12.9‰ to +25.9‰). The sulphates in the regional rocks could therefore represent an important source of S for the Fule deposit via thermochemical sulphate reduction. The S source of the Fule deposit is different from those of most other Pb–Zn deposits in the SYG Pb–Zn mineralization province, which were mainly derived from the ore-bearing strata. The δ34S values of the early to late generations and some single sulphide crystals from the cores to rims show a slight increasing trend, implying that partial Rayleigh fractionation took place in the Fule deposit. It is suggested that the Fule sulphide precipitation resulted from the mixing of a metalliferous fluid with a H2S-rich fluid derived from the regional strata. Combining the geology, mineralogy and S isotope results with previous Pb isotope studies, it is suggested that the Fule deposit should be attributed to a Mississippi Valley type deposit.
The widespread, rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds is a serious and escalating agronomic problem worldwide. During China’s economic boom, the country became one of the most important herbicide producers and consumers in the world, and herbicide resistance has dramatically increased in the past decade and has become a serious threat to agriculture. Here, following an evidence-based PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) approach, we carried out a systematic review to quantitatively assess herbicide resistance in China. Multiple weed species, including 26, 18, 11, 9, 5, 5, 4, and 3 species in rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], corn (Zea mays L.), canola (Brassica napus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)., orchards, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields, respectively, have developed herbicide resistance. Acetolactate synthase inhibitors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, and synthetic auxin herbicides are the most resistance-prone herbicides and are the most frequently used mechanisms of action, followed by 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitors and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. The lack of alternative herbicides to manage weeds that exhibit cross-resistance or multiple resistance (or both) is an emerging issue and poses one of the greatest threats challenging the crop production and food safety both in China and globally.
The three-dimensional flow characteristics of the compressible vortex ring generated by under-expanded circular jets with two typical pressure ratios, i.e.
(moderate) and 4.0 (high), are investigated numerically with the use of large-eddy simulations. Our results illustrate that these two pressure ratios correspond to different shock structures (shock cell and Mach disc, respectively) within the jet. These two typical types of flow structures and characteristics are discussed and validated with experiments, and the different generation mechanisms of the secondary vortex rings are compared. Moreover, detailed information about the evolution of the secondary vortex ring, primary vortex ring and turbulence transition features, including the radial and azimuthal modes, is investigated. The geometric features and mixing effects of the jets are also explored.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
A series of metal oxides (MnFeOx, MnCrOx, MnTiOx, and MnFeTiOx) supported on attapulgite (ATP) were synthesized by coprecipitation for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. Then, they were subjected to appropriate characterizations for their properties (XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, etc.). The catalytic activity of MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst was over 95% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between of 175 and 300 °C, and 88% N2 selectivity. Moreover, MnFeTiOx/ATP presented excellent potassium resistance relative to the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst, and its denitration performance was significantly improved. The NOx conversion rate could be restored to nearly 90% at 210 °C after removing potassium via washing of K–MnFeTiOx/ATP. In addition, the MnFeTiOx/ATP showed better SO2 resistance and stability than the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst. Therefore, the MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst has been proved to have broad prospects in NH3-SCR.
In this study, a thermal–elastic–plastic finite element model is proposed to investigate the effect of volume energy density on the temperature field, molten pool size, and residual stress distribution in the selective laser melting (SLM) process of Inconel 718 alloy. A temperature-dependent thermal–mechanical property of materials is considered, as well as the properties conversion between powder layer and solidified alloy. Within the scope of the study parameters, the simulated molten pool size increases with increasing volume energy density and exhibits linear growth relationship, which are validated by the experimental results and show a good agreement. In addition, five scanning strategies are adopted to study the effect of these scanning strategies on the residual stress distribution in this research. The results show that the residual stress distribution of SLM Inconel 718 specimen largely depends on the scanning strategy. Finally, to reveal the mechanism of residual stress formation, the restraint bar model is used to further analyze the formation mechanism of residual stress during the SLM process.
The microstructure evolution of a typical nickel-based superalloy was studied in the strain range of 0.1–0.9 at 1110 °C/0.01 s−1 by using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. It was found that the evolution of recrystallized microstructures, grain boundary characteristics, and textures was closely related to strain level. With the increasing strain level, the fraction of equiaxed dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains increased significantly at the expense of the large non-recrystallized grains, and there was a decrease in total low angle grain boundaries fraction and a simultaneous increase in the fraction of high angle grain boundaries. In addition, the occurrence of DRX promoted the formation of Σ3 boundaries, and the coherent Σ3 boundaries were much easier to form at the strain above 0.5. On the other hand, 〈100〉 component of the textures became stronger with the increasing strains, and the lack of 〈111〉 orientations can also be observed in the textures at high strains above 0.7.
Strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling provides a powerful method for controlling nanoscale magnetism with an electric voltage. This article reviews the initial use of macroscale composites and subsequent experimental control of magnetic thin films, nanoscale heterostructures, and single domains. The discussion highlights several characteristics enabling small, fast, and energy-efficient technologies. The second section covers applications where strain-mediated magnetoelectricity has been used, with emphasis on the storage, transmission, and processing of information (i.e., memory, antenna, and logic devices). These advances are order-of-magnitude improvements over conventional technologies, and open up exciting new possibilities.
Globally, the prevalence of childhood obesity has substantially increased at an alarming rate. This study investigated associations between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in 3- to 6-year-old children. Recruited children were from four prefecture-level cities in Eastern China. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. Individual dietary patterns were assessed by a comprehensive self-administered FFQ using thirty-five food items. Using factor analysis two dietary patterns were derived: the traditional Chinese pattern was characterised by high consumption of cereals, vegetables and fresh juices while the modern pattern was characterised by high consumption of Western fast food, Chinese fast food, sweets/sugary foods and carbonated beverages. The associations of dietary patterns with overweight/obesity were evaluated by logistic regression models. Data of 8900 preschool children from thirty-five kindergartens recruited from March to June 2015 were used in the final analysis. Adherence to the modern dietary pattern was positively associated with children's age while adherence to the traditional dietary pattern was positively associated with maternal education; these associations were statistically significant. After adjustment, we found that being in the highest tertile of any identified dietary patterns was not significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary patterns are not associated with overweight/obesity in Chinese preschool children. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between dietary patterns and childhood obesity.