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Despite good clinical evidence, depot antipsychotics are only seldom prescribed to patients with first episode schizophrenia. The present study aims at investigating psychiatrists’ reasons for this reservation.
We surveyed 198 psychiatrists on their attitude toward offering depot treatment to first episode patients (FEP). Participants scored the extent of influence of individual factors on their decision on a seven-point-scale, additional data on their prescription practice and estimation of the relapse risk of FEP were collected.
Psychiatrists reported that only three out of 12 factors were of influence. These were the limited availability of different second generation antipsychotic depot drugs, the frequent rejection of the depot offer by the patients and the patients’ skepticism based on the lack in experience of a relapse.
There is actually little specific reason for not prescribing depot to FEP according to the current survey. For those factors being reported to be of influence, psychoeducation, including profound information on depot treatment, the development of additional SGA depot drugs and the standard offer of depot treatment to all FEP in a shared-decision-making may be considered.
We present the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Cluster and VIRIAL (VLT IRIFU Absorption Line) Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) programs. KMOS provides 24 arms each feeding an integral field unit (14×14 spaxels of 0.2″ pixels) for IZ, YJ, H and K band near infrared (NIR) medium resolution spectroscopy (R ∼ 3500). Targets are selected from a 7.2′ diameter patrol field. Ultra-deep spectroscopy of ∼ 80 early-type cluster galaxies (∼ 20hr on source) and ∼ 200 (∼ 10hr on source) early-type field galaxies at 1 < z < 2 will dramatically improve the situation at z > 1 for which measurements of stellar velocity dispersions and absorption indices are limited to a few, often relatively young passively evolving galaxies (e.g. Bezanson 2013). In ESO Periods P92 and P93, 15 nights worth of data has been collected for KMOS-Clusters and 6 nights for VIRIAL: this will be supplemented with more data in upcoming semesters. All galaxies have multiband HST imaging including existing or upcoming WFC3 IR imaging, providing stellar mass maps and sizes. Combined with our dispersion measurements, this will allow us to examine the fundamental plane and the dynamical mass of a large sample of z > 1 galaxies for the first time, for both cluster and field galaxies.
KMOS is a cryogenic infrared spectrograph fed by twentyfour deployable integral field units that patrol a 7.2 arcminute diameter field of view at the Nasmyth focus of the ESO VLT. It is well suited to the study of galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 2 where the well understood features in the restframe V-band are shifted into the KMOS spectral bands. Coupled with HST imagining, KMOS offers a window on the critical epoch for galaxy evolution, 7-10 Gyrs ago, when the key properties of cluster galaxies were established. We aim to investigate the size, mass, morphology and star formation history of galaxies in the clusters. Here we describe the instrument, discuss the status of the observations and report some preliminary results.
To study whether employees who disclose a psychiatric diagnosis, such as depression risk stigmatisation and discrimination at the workplace.
Randomised experimental study with 748 managers from German companies incorporating four case vignettes displaying an employee with different ‘diagnoses’ (depression, burnout, private crisis and thyroid dysfunction), but identical unspecific complaints. Main outcome measures were the managers' attitudes and their impact on stigmatisation with respect to job performance.
In nearly all aspects of job performance, the diagnosis depression (psychiatric disorder) was seen as more critical than the diagnosis of a thyroid dysfunction (somatic disease). The diagnosis ‘burnout’ did not prove to be less stigmatising than ‘depression’. Likewise ‘private crisis’ was rated less favourably than thyroid dysfunction.
Therefore, employees have to evaluate if they disclose their psychiatric disorder or if they conceal it as a somatic illness.
A new treatment of soliton and laminar shock-like structures in single ion species and counter-streaming plasmas in perpendicular magnetic fields is presented. Charge separation effects are treated exactly, and may become important for high Alfvén Mach number flows. The theory contains the familiar quasi-neutrality theory in the limit B20 ≪ Μ0nmec2 and the Longmire theory in the limit B20 ≫ Μ0nmec2. The introduction of the potential ψ as the primary dependent variable, instead of the magnetic field B, clarifies the role of ion dynamics. New pseudo-potential functions are defined which generate classes of solutions for single ion species, rigid piston problems, and multispecies problems. They also provide information about the evolution of particle piston solutions. Results include the fact that a small amount of resistivity allows shock solutions for very large Mach numbers, and for zero dissipation the parameter
does not affect the solutions except in the scale length.
Kathryn A. O'Donnell, Program in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology Institute of Genetic Medicine Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21205 USA,
Joshua T. Mendell, Program in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology Institute of Genetic Medicine Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21205 USA
Over the past twenty years, cancer geneticists have uncovered many of the genes responsible for the initiation and progression of the multi-step process of tumorigenesis (Vogelstein and Kinzler, 2004). Much of this research has focused on traditional protein-coding genes including oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and genes that maintain genome stability. Within the past five years, a new class of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has been identified and recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of miRNAs is linked to the development of cancer.
In 1993, the Ambros and Ruvkun laboratories discovered that a 21-nucleotide RNA molecule called lin-4 regulated the translation of a target message, lin-14, by base-pairing to its 3′ untranslated region (Lee et al., 1993; Wightman et al., 1993). Subsequent work in this direction prompted the construction and sequencing of libraries of cloned small RNAs by several groups of investigators. Coupled with bioinformatic analyses of genomic sequence, these efforts led to the identification of several hundred miRNAs in Drosophila, C. elegans, and mammals (Lagos-Quintana et al., 2001; Lau et al., 2001; Lee and Ambros, 2001). More than 450 miRNAs have been identified in humans and recent estimates suggest there may be as many as 1000 (Bentwich et al., 2005: Berezikov et al., 2005). The biogenesis and function of microRNAs are detailed in various chapters in Part II of this book. In general, the analysis of many more miRNA–target interactions is required to better understand the mechanisms through which miRNAs elicit various effects.
Characterizations are being conducted on light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel with peak burnups from ∼31 to 46 MWd/kgM and rod-average fission gas releases of ∼0.3 to 11%. Measured concentrations of nuclides agreed within ∼10 to 15% of the predicted amounts. Radiochemistry of deposits on the cladding interior surface, fuel ceramography, beta/gamma autoradiog-raphy, and gamma scan data were consistent with fuel burnups and apparent operating temperatures. Microstructural observations also indicated increased porosity at the fuel center in high-release fuels and at the edge in high-burnup fuels. Cladding oxide thickness increased with exterior cladding temperatures as did the trend in hydriding.
The development of high power ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion is in progress on the PBFA I accelerator. The three main types of magnetically-insulated ion diodes, the Applied-B, Hybrid, and Pinch Reflex diodes, are compared. This paper presents the results from the first series of tests of the Hybrid diode.