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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism are increasingly recognised in adults. For a diagnostic evaluation, parental information on childhood development is needed. However, no instruments that retrospectively describe neurodevelopmental problems in childhood are validated for evaluating adults. The 181-item parent-report questionnaire Five to Fifteen (FTF) is nevertheless frequently used for assessments in adulthood.
To examine if FTF is reliable for obtaining retrospective neurodevelopmental history among young adults.
Details of parents who had assessed their children with the FTF for neuropsychiatric evaluation were retrieved and they were asked to complete the FTF again 10–19 years later. Agreements between original and retrospective scorings were analysed.
Long-term reliability for FTF varies considerably between individual items. Several difficulties are reported as more severe at the retrospective scoring than at the original scoring. A selection of 24 items (FTF-Brief) with good agreement over time, is presented for use in adult psychiatry settings.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms may fluctuate over time and become more prominent when demands increase. Informants' recollections of their child's neurodevelopmental symptoms may be a selection of symptoms that are longstanding rather than present at a specific age in childhood.
Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), an umbrella term that includes PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) is suggested to be a psychiatric disorder of autoimmune aetiology. PANS is characterised by an acute onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder or restricted eating with multiple comorbid symptoms. The specificity of the PANS criteria is not fully understood.
To describe a cohort of patients with PANS and to determine if PANS features relating to symptoms, onset and course are more common in PANS than in other psychiatric conditions.
A case–control study comparing patients with interview-confirmed PANS with patients with suspected PANS and patients with a psychiatric condition but with no suspicion of PANS. Validated and non-validated measures of symptoms, onset and episodic course were used.
Illness in patients with interview-confirmed PANS featured an episodic course and multiple symptoms present at onset compared with the psychiatric controls. However, individuals with interview-confirmed PANS did not present a specific symptom profile.
PANS may be a distinct clinical entity featuring an acute onset, an episodic course and multiple symptoms at onset.
Generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) is reportedly overrepresented among
clinical cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism
spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It
is unknown if these associations are dimensional and, therefore, also
relevant among non-clinical populations.
To investigate if GJH correlates with sub-syndromal neurodevelopmental
symptoms in a normal population.
Hakim-Grahame's 5-part questionnaire (5PQ) on GJH, neuropsychiatric
screening scales measuring ADHD and ASD traits, and a DCD-related
question concerning clumsiness were distributed to a non-clinical, adult,
Swedish population (n=1039).
In total, 887 individuals met our entry criteria. We found no
associations between GJH and sub-syndromal symptoms of ADHD, ASD or
Although GJH is overrepresented in clinical cases with neurodevelopmental
disorders, such an association seems absent in a normal population. Thus,
if GJH serves as a biomarker cutting across diagnostic boundaries, this
association is presumably limited to clinical populations.
The ‘extreme male brain’ theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat
paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical
features regardless of gender.
To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in
adults with and without ASD.
Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length
(2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with
high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls.
Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained
and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently,
by eight assessors.
Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less
feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female
controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine
body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less
masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls.
Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with
autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total
sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did
not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group.
Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised
characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed
several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather
than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may
constitute a gender defiant disorder.
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