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When borrowers are delinquent, senior debtholders prefer liquidation, whereas junior debtholders prefer to maintain their option value by delaying resolution or modifying the loan. In the mortgage market, a conflict of interest (“holdup”) arises when servicers of securitized senior liens are also the owners of the junior liens on the same property. We show that holdup servicers are able to delay action on the first-lien mortgage. When they do act, servicers are more likely to choose resolutions that maintain their option value, favoring modification and soft foreclosures over outright foreclosures. Holdup behavior is more likely to result in borrower self-curing.
This paper focuses on the defaultable lease rate term structure with endogenous default. We combine the competitive lease market argument proposed by Grenadier (1996) and the endogenous default structural model proposed by Leland and Toft (1996) to examine the interaction between the lessee’s capital structure and the equilibrium lease rate. Under this framework, determining the lease rate is a simultaneous equation problem that captures the trade-off between debt and lease financing. Using data on 2,482 real estate lease transactions, we empirically confirm the predictions derived from the numerical analysis of the model.
We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented to us with dysphagia secondary to blunt trauma to the neck. The patient was found to have a hyoid bone fracture with pharyngeal perforation and resultant neck abscess. The patient responded to prompt surgical and medical management. We believe this to be the first report of such a case.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films for photovoltaics and thin film transistors are deposited from silane containing discharges. The radicals generated in the plasma such as SiH3 and H impinge on the surface and lead to silicon film growth through a complex network of elementary surface processes that include adsorption, abstraction, insertion and diffusion of various radicals. Mechanism and kinetics of these reactions determine the film composition and quality. Developing deposition strategies for improving the film quality requires a fundamental understanding of the radical-surface interaction mechanisms. We have been using in situ multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry in conjunction with atomistic simulations to determine the elementary surface reaction and diffusion mechanisms. Synergistic use of experiments and atomistic simulations elucidate elementary processes occurring on the surface. Herein, we review our current understanding of the reaction mechanisms that lead to a-Si:H film growth with special emphasis on the reactions of the SiH3 radical.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited from SiH4 containing plasmas are used in solar cells and thin film transistors for flat panel displays. Understanding the fundamental microscopic surface processes that lead to Si deposition and H incorporation is important for controlling the film properties. An in situ method based on attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was developed and used to determine the surface coverage of silicon mono-, di-, and tri-hydrides as a function of deposition temperature and ion bombardment flux. Key reactions that take place on the surface during deposition are hypothesized based on the evolution of the surface hydride composition as a function of temperature and ion flux. In conjunction with the experiments, the growth of a-Si:H on H-terminated Si(001)-(2×1) surfaces was simulated through molecular dynamics. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements to validate the simulations and to provide supporting evidence for radical-surface interaction mechanisms hypothesized based on the infrared spectroscopy data. Experimental measurements of the surface silicon hydride coverage and atomistic simulations are used synergistically to elucidate elementary processes occurring on the surface during a-Si:H deposition.
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