The objectives of the present study were to assess total dietary fibre intake and the main contributors to fibre intake in the Belgian population by sex–age and sex–education groups and to investigate its relationship with BMI and waist circumference (WC). The participants of the Belgian food consumption survey (2004) were randomly selected. Information about food intake was collected using two repeated, non-consecutive 24 h recall interviews. A total of 3083 individuals ( ≥ 15 years; 1546 men and 1537 women) completed both interviews. The main contributors to total fibre intake (17·8 g/d) were cereals and cereal products (34 %; 5·9 g/d), potatoes and other tubers (18·6 %; 3·3 g/d), fruits (14·7 %; 2·8 g/d) and vegetables (14·4 %; 2·6 g/d). Legume fibre intake was extremely low (0·672 %; 0·139 g/d). In all sex–age and sex–education groups, total fibre intake was below the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Men (21 g/d) consumed significantly more fibre than women (17·3 g/d) (P < 0·001). Lower educated men and higher educated women reported the highest fibre intake. A significant inverse association was found between total fibre intake and WC (β = − 0·118, P < 0·001). Fruit-derived fibre was positively associated with WC (β = 0·731, P = 0·001). In summary, total fibre intake was inversely associated with WC, whereas fruit-derived fibre intake was positively associated with WC in the Belgian population.