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Direct observations for high frequency microscopic dielectric distributions in cross sections of a multi-layer ceramic capacitor were carried out using non-contact type microwave probe. The measured data were imaged from the raw data and rounding data process. Using microwave reflection intensity mappings from cross sections of multi-layer ceramic capacitor, the dielectric permittivity distribution in micro-region of a multi-layer ceramic capacitor was measured at room temperature. The spatial resolution was experimentally estimated to be about 10 μm from mappings of the dielectric and inner electrode layers in a multi-layer ceramic capacitor.
Dielectric permittivity (εr) of BaTiO3(BTO) powders was determined by measuring εr of slurries prepared from BTO powder and propylene carbonate as dispersion medium, followed by analyzing with a finite element methods (FEM). The εr of powders depended on their characters such as tetragonality (c/a ratio), density, particle size and specific surface area. In order to extract the effect of each character, a statistical analysis was carried out to represent the εr of powders with an empirical formula, where the c/a ratio, density and particle size were used as parameters. A fairly good agreement between observed data and those expected from the formula was obtained and the contribution of each character to the εr could be determined.
We have successfully obtained large lateral grains with well-controlled grain boundary. The proposed excimer laser annealing (ELA) method produces 2-dimensionally controlled grain growth because the temperature gradient is induced in two directions. Along the channel direction, the floating active structure produces large thermal gradient due to very low thermal conductivity of the air-gap. Along the perpendicular direction to the channel, the surface tension effect also produces thermal gradient. The proposed ELA method can control the grain boundary perpendicular and parallel to current path with only one laser irradiation.
NiCr films were thermally evaporated on the Mn-Ni-Co-O thick-film substrates. The NiCr/Mn-Ni-Co-O bi-layer systems were tested in a thermal shock chamber with three temperature differences of 150, 175 and 200°C. The systems were considered to have failed when the sheet resistance of NiCr films changed by 30% relative to an initial value. As the cyclic repetition of thermal shock increased, the sheet resistance of NiCr coatings increased. The Coffin-Manson equation was applied to the failure mechanism of cracking of NiCr coatings and the SEM observation of cracks and delamination in NiCr coatings due to thermal cycling agreed well with the failure mechanism.
BaTiO3/SrTiO3, BaTiO3/BaZrO3, and SrZrO3/SrTiO3 artificial superlattices were fabricated on SrTiO3 substrates by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process. The stacking periodicity of each layer was varied from 1 unit cell to 40 unit cells, and the total thickness was fixed at 80 unit cells. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) clearly shows the formation of the superlattice structure. Their lattice parameters obtained from the reciprocal space mapping measurement indicated that the lattice distortion was dependent on the stacking periodicity. The capacitance and the complex admittance of the superlattices were measured with interdigital electrodes by an impedance analyzer up to 110 MHz. It was found that the dielectric permittivity changed with the superlattice periodicity. The Q-V measurement results showed clear hysteresis curves and this suggested that ferroelectricity was induced into the SrZrO3/SrTiO3 superlattices despite a combination between paraelectrics/paraelectrics.
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