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Change of the charge ordered (CO) structure by substituting Cu2+ for Fe2+ in LuFe2O4 was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscopy. The CO structure in LuFe2O4 is characterized by the modulated structure with the wave vector of q=1/3[1-13/2] and the average size of the CO domains can be estimated to be about 10-20nm. On the contrary, the Cu2+ substitution in LuFe2O4 destroyed the CO structure drastically and induced characteristic local lattice distortion, which gives rise to characteristic diffuse scattering in the reciprocal space. High-resolution lattice images revealed that there exist nano-scale clusters, which are characterized as the short-range ordering of the Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions on the triangular lattice. In addition, the magnetic measurement revealed that LuFeCuO4 exhibits an antiferromagnetic transition around 50K, which is lower than the Neel temperature of 250K in LuFe2O4.
Electrical conduction properties of charge ordering type ferroelectrics YFe2O4 were investigated. YFe2O4 was synthesized in reduced atmosphere at 1200 °C. Oxygen partial pressure of the reduced atmosphere was controlled by the equilibrium state of CO and CO2. YFe2O4 is paramagnetic at room temperature and has Néel temperature around 250K. The Néel temperature was decreased with increasing the amount of oxygen deficiency. Moreover, YFe2O4 showed ohmic conduction from 260 to 100 K. The temperature dependence of the DC conductivity showed an inflection point at the Néel temperature, which indicated the development of charge ordering of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. From the complex impedance measurements, the equivalent circuits of YFe2O4 with different oxygen deficiency were determined at various temperatures.
We report ferroelectricity in triangular mixed valence material RFe2O4 (R=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). This ferroelectricity originates from the polar ordering of Fe3+ and Fe2+ or the polar ordering of electrons on Fe3+.
The incidence of multiple primary malignancies (MPM) was analysed in 1297 patients with malignant tumours of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. The patients were followed for a minimum of six years or until death. The incidence of MPM was 3.4 per cent (44/1297) which is lower than in patients with malignant tumours of other regions in the upper aerodigestive tract. Five of the 44 patients had second malignancies within previously irradiated areas. There was a difference between the proportion of histologies occurring in irradiated tissues compared with the overall 1297 patients. This finding suggests that radiotherapy may induce a second cancer.
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