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To examine the influence of eating location on the quality of the diets of Irish children and to compare intakes at home with intakes at other people's homes and intakes outside the home, and to compare intakes at various locations outside the home.
Food intake was measured using a 7-day weighed diary in 594 children from the Republic of Ireland (aged 5–12 years). Details of where the food was prepared or obtained were also recorded.
Eighty-nine per cent of all eating occasions occurred at home; < 6% occurred at both other people's homes and outside the home (takeaway, restaurant, shop, other). The percentage of food energy from fat was above the recommended 35% at other people's homes and outside the home, specifically at takeaways and restaurants. Fibre and micronutrient intakes (per 10 MJ) were significantly higher at home than at the other locations (P < 0.05). Within the ‘out’ locations, fibre and micronutrient intakes were generally higher at restaurants and lower at shops. High consumers of foods outside the home had a statistically significant, but relatively small decline in nutrient intakes compared with non- or low consumers. Chips and processed potatoes, meat products, savouries, sugars and confectionery, and savoury snacks made the greatest contribution to foods consumed outside the home.
The main focus of nutrition policies to improve the diets of Irish children should be the home environment rather than the food service sector. However, guidelines could call for better food choices outside the home to improve nutrient intakes.
To examine the temporal pattern of the number of eating occasions that occurred at home, at work and outside the home, and to examine the contribution of fat to energy and the contribution of 26 food groups to fat at home and outside the home.
Design and setting
Food intake data were collected using a 7-day food diary from a random sample of 18–64-year-old adults from the Republic of Ireland (n = 958). Respondents recorded the day, time and location of every eating occasion.
The number of eating occasions was constant across the days of the week for meals consumed at home, whereas the number of eating occasions increased at weekends for meals outside the home. The contribution of fat to energy approximated the 35% recommendation at home from Monday to Friday, but increased above this on Saturday and Sunday. The contribution of fat to energy outside the home was always above the recommendation. The food groups that contributed most to fat were similar at home and outside the home. These included butter and full-fat spreads, fresh meat, meat products, meat dishes, biscuits, cakes and pastries, whole milk, and chips and processed potatoes.
The contribution of fat to energy was above the recommendations when eating outside the home, regardless of day of the week. A number of food groups have been identified that contributed most to fat intake outside the home and these might be targeted in developing public health nutrition strategies to reduce fat intake.
To analyse the temporal distribution of the intake of cereal and dairy products in the Republic of Ireland.
The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey established a database of habitual food and drink consumption using a 7-day food diary. The database also recorded the time and day of food consumption. Mean intakes of cereal and dairy products were calculated for time of the day and day of the week.
At the weekend, the percentage of consumers decreased for nearly all cereal and dairy products. White bread, total cereals, full-fat milk and total dairy intakes were significantly lower at the weekend (P<0.01) compared with weekdays. Intakes of cereal and dairy products over time of the day showed clear mealtime or snacking patterns when the number of consumers was controlled for. White bread, wholemeal bread, total cereals, full-fat milk, reduced-fat milk and total dairy intakes showed mealtime peaks for morning, afternoon and evening. When examined by tertile of intake, tertile of percentage energy from fat and tertile of fibre intake, intakes of cereal and dairy products over time of the day and day of the week were similar to trends described above, regardless of the tertile.
Temporal analysis of the intakes of cereal and dairy products did not reveal any unusual trends in this population. However, the significant methodological issues raised in this paper will be of benefit to other aspects of research in this area.
To examine the contribution of the food service sector to the nutrient quality of the Irish diet, and to compare intakes at home, work and outside the home (‘ut’) and within the subgroups of the out location (pub, deli, takeaway)
Design and setting
Random sample of adults from the Republic of Ireland. Food intake data were collected using a 7-day food diary. Respondents recorded the location of every eating occasion determined by where the food was prepared rather than consumed
Intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate were significantly greater at home than at work or out (P <0.05). The intake of alcohol was significantly (P <0.001) greater out than at home or work. The percentage contribution of fat to energy was above the recommendations (33% of total energy and 35% of food energy) for both men and women at all locations, with the exception of the contribution of fat to total energy for men at the out location. Within the subgroups of the out location, the contribution of alcohol to total energy was greatest in pubs and the contribution of fat to both total and food energy was greatest in takeaways. Intakes of fibre and most micronutrients per 10 MJ of food energy were greater (P <0.05) at home than at work or out
Foods eaten outside the home contribute a disproportionately high level of fat intake and should be targeted in public health nutrition strategies
To estimate the intakes of cereal and dairy products and their contribution to nutrient intakes in men and women from the Republic of Ireland with a view to formulating food-based dietary guidelines.
The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey established a database of habitual food and drink consumption using a 7-day food diary. From this database all cereal and dairy products from recipes and identifiable sources were identified and a new database was generated from which analysis of the role of cereal and dairy products in the diet was carried out.
Almost 100% of the population consumed cereal and dairy products over the course of the survey week. In general, men consumed significantly more cereal and dairy products than did women (P<0.05). Cereal products made an important contribution to the mean daily intakes of energy (26%), protein (21%), fat (13%), carbohydrate (41%), fibre (45%), iron (43%) and folate (27%). Dairy products also contributed largely to the mean daily intakes of energy (11%), protein (14%), fat (17%), calcium (48%), phosphorus (24%) and vitamin A (27%). Analysis of nutrient intakes across tertiles of cereal and dairy consumption showed that high consumers of wholemeal bread, breakfast cereals, reduced-fat milk and yoghurt had lower fat and higher carbohydrate, fibre and micronutrient intakes than low consumers of these foods.
Findings from the present study could be used to develop effective health strategies to implement changes in cereal and dairy consumption that could alter fat, fibre and micronutrient intakes in the diet.
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