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We present a theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of two-layer viscous fluid flows on inclined surfaces, motivated by natural and industrial phenomena involving the interactions between two fluid layers. A general model describing the evolution of two fluids on an inclined substrate is developed and explored to reveal a rich variety of flow regimes for different modes of release. The asymptotic reduction of this problem due to the dominance of the along-slope component of gravity is shown to yield considerable analytical inroads compared with previous studies of multi-layer flow configurations, which have focused exclusively on the case of horizontal beds. For the canonical example in which two fluids are introduced at a constant flux, the flow forms two regions: an upstream region containing both fluids, and a downstream region comprised purely of the lighter fluid, with a sharp intervening jump in thicknesses between the two. By constructing similarity solutions, we establish a full regime diagram of the possible configurations over all asymptotic limits of the viscosity, flux and density ratios. For the release of two fixed volumes of fluid, the layers separate completely into two disjoint but connected regions, contrasting in essential structure from the constant flux case. Even a small volume of the heavier fluid is able to significantly accelerate the propagation of the lighter fluid in front of it. Excellent agreement is found between our theoretical predictions and the results of a series of laboratory experiments.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotics and other dopamine receptor blocking agents. Long-term safety of the approved TD medication, valbenazine, was demonstrated in 2 clinical trials (KINECT 3 [NCT02274558], KINECT 4 [NCT02405091]). Data from these trials were analyzed post hoc to evaluate the onset and resolution of adverse events (AEs).
Participants in KINECT 3 and KINECT 4 received up to 48 weeks of once-daily valbenazine (40 or 80 mg). Data from these studies were pooled and analyzed to assess the incidence, time to first occurrence, and resolution for the following AEs of potential clinical interest: akathisia, balance disorder, dizziness, parkinsonism, somnolence/sedation, suicidal behavior/ideation, and tremor.
In the pooled population (N=314), all AEs of potential clinical interest occurred in <10% of participants, with somnolence (9.6%), suicidal behavior/ideation (6.4%), and dizziness (5.7%) being the most common AEs. Mean time to first occurrence ranged from 36 days (akathisia [n=9]) to 224 days (parkinsonism [n=2]). By end of study (or last study visit), resolution of AEs was as follows: 100% (suicidal ideation/behavior, parkinsonism); >85% (somnolence/sedation, dizziness); >70% (akathisia, balance disorder, tremor).
In long-term clinical trials, the incidence of AEs of potential clinical interest was low (<10%) and most were resolved by end of treatment (>70–100%). All patients taking valbenazine should be routinely monitored for AEs, particularly those that may exacerbate the motor symptoms associated with TD.
We assessed long-term incidence and prevalence trends of dementia and parkinsonism across major ethnic and immigrant groups in Ontario.
Linking administrative databases, we established two cohorts (dementia 2001–2014 and parkinsonism 2001–2015) of all residents aged 20 to 100 years with incident diagnosis of dementia (N = 387,937) or parkinsonism (N = 59,617). We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism by immigrant status and ethnic groups (Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population). We assessed incidence and prevalence trends using Poisson regression and Cochran–Armitage trend tests.
Across selected ethnic groups, dementia incidence and prevalence were higher in long-term residents than recent or longer-term immigrants from 2001 to 2014. During this period, age- and sex-standardized incidence of dementia in Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population increased, respectively, among longer-term immigrants (by 41%, 58%, and 42%) and long-term residents (28%, 7%, and 4%), and to a lesser degree among recent immigrants. The small number of cases precluded us from assessing parkinsonism incidence trends. For Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population, respectively, prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism modestly increased over time among recent immigrants but significantly increased among longer-term immigrants (dementia: 134%, 217%, and 117%; parkinsonism: 55%, 54%, and 43%) and long-term residents (dementia: 97%, 132%, and 71%; parkinsonism: 18%, 30%, and 29%). Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appear to explain incidence trends, except for stroke and coronary artery disease as potential drivers of dementia incidence.
Recent immigrants across major ethnic groups in Ontario had considerably lower rates of dementia and parkinsonism than long-term residents, but this difference diminished with longer-term immigrants.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
We used social network analysis (SNA) to study the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Karnataka, India, and to assess the potential of SNA as a tool for outbreak monitoring and control. We analysed contact tracing data of 1147 COVID-19 positive cases (mean age 34.91 years, 61.99% aged 11–40, 742 males), anonymised and made public by the Karnataka government. Software tools, Cytoscape and Gephi, were used to create SNA graphics and determine network attributes of nodes (cases) and edges (directed links from source to target patients). Outdegree was 1–47 for 199 (17.35%) nodes, and betweenness, 0.5–87 for 89 (7.76%) nodes. Men had higher mean outdegree and women, higher mean betweenness. Delhi was the exogenous source of 17.44% cases. Bangalore city had the highest caseload in the state (229, 20%), but comparatively low cluster formation. Thirty-four (2.96%) ‘super-spreaders’ (outdegree ⩾ 5) caused 60% of the transmissions. Real-time social network visualisation can allow healthcare administrators to flag evolving hotspots and pinpoint key actors in transmission. Prioritising these areas and individuals for rigorous containment could help minimise resource outlay and potentially achieve a significant reduction in COVID-19 transmission.
To determine the prevalence and predictors of hypocalcaemia in under-five children (1–59 months) hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among children hospitalised with SAM. Serum Ca and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D) were estimated. Hypocalcaemia was defined as serum Ca (albumin-adjusted) <2·12 mmol/l. To identify the clinical predictors of hypocalcaemia, a logistic regression model was constructed taking hypocalcaemia as a dependent variable, and sociodemographic and clinical variables as independent variables.
A tertiary care hospital in Delhi, between November 2017 and April 2019.
One-hundred and fifty children (1–59 months) hospitalised with SAM were enrolled.
Hypocalcaemia was documented in thirty-nine (26 %) children hospitalised with SAM, the prevalence being comparable between children aged <6 months (11/41, 26·8 %) and those between 6 and 59 months (28/109, 25·7 %) (P = 0·887). Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-(OH)D <30 nmol/l) and clinical rickets were observed in ninety-eight (65·3 %) and sixty-three (42 %) children, respectively. Hypocalcaemia occurred more frequently in severely malnourished children with clinical rickets (OR 6·6, 95 % CI 2·54, 17·15, P < 0·001), abdominal distension (OR 4·5, 95 % CI 1·39, 14·54, P = 0·012) and sepsis (OR 2·6, 95 % CI 1·00, 6·57, P = 0·050).
Rickets and hypocalcaemia are common in children with SAM. Routine supplementation of vitamin D should be considered for severely malnourished children. Ca may be empirically prescribed to severely malnourished children with clinical rickets, abdominal distension and/or sepsis.
The pervasive problem of irreproducibility of preclinical research represents a substantial threat to the translation of CTSA-generated health interventions. Key stakeholders in the research process have proposed solutions to this challenge to encourage research practices that improve reproducibility. However, these proposals have had minimal impact, because they either 1. take place too late in the research process, 2. focus exclusively on the products of research instead of the processes of research, and/or 3. fail to take into account the driving incentives in the research enterprise. Because so much clinical and translational science is team-based, CTSA hubs have a unique opportunity to leverage Science of Team Science research to implement and support innovative, evidence-based, team-focused, reproducibility-enhancing activities at a project’s start, and across its evolution. Here, we describe the impact of irreproducibility on clinical and translational science, review its origins, and then describe stakeholders’ efforts to impact reproducibility, and why those efforts may not have the desired effect. Based on team-science best practices and principles of scientific integrity, we then propose ways for Translational Teams to build reproducible behaviors. We end with suggestions for how CTSAs can leverage team-based best practices and identify observable behaviors that indicate a culture of reproducible research.
Presently, evidence guiding clinicians on the optimal approach to safely screen patients for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a nonemergent hospital procedure is scarce. In this report, we describe our experience in screening for SARS-CoV-2 prior to semiurgent and urgent hospital procedures.
Retrospective case series.
A single tertiary-care medical center.
Our study cohort included patients ≥18 years of age who had semiurgent or urgent hospital procedures or surgeries.
Overall, 625 patients were screened for SARS-CoV-2 using a combination of phone questionnaire (7 days prior to the anticipated procedure), RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020, and April 30, 2020.
Of the 625 patients, 520 scans (83.2%) were interpreted as normal; 1 (0.16%) had typical features of COVID-19; 18 scans (2.88%) had indeterminate features of COVID-19; and 86 (13.76%) had atypical features of COVID-19. In total, 640 RT-PCRs were performed, with 1 positive result (0.15%) in a patient with a CT scan that yielded an atypical finding. Of the 18 patients with chest CTs categorized as indeterminate, 5 underwent repeat negative RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab 1 week after their initial swab. Also, 1 patient with a chest CT categorized as typical had a follow-up repeat negative RT-PCR, indicating that the chest CT was likely a false positive. After surgery, none of the patients developed signs or symptoms suspicious of COVID-19 that would indicate the need for a repeated RT-PCR or CT scan.
In our experience, chest CT scanning did not prove provide valuable information in detecting asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in our low-prevalence population.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has been associated with childhood stunting (length-for-age/height-for-age < –2 sd), while data lacks for Bangladesh, a country with substantial burden of childhood stunting. This paper examined the association between aflatoxin exposure and childhood stunting in a slum setting of Dhaka city.
In this MAL-ED aflatoxin birth cohort study, plasma samples were assayed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) by MS at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months of age for 208, 196, 173 and 167 children to assess chronic aflatoxin exposure. Relationship between aflatoxin exposure and anthropometric measures was examined by mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Setting and participants:
The study was conducted in Mirpur, Dhaka, where children were followed from birth to 36 months.
Prevalence of stunting increased from 21 % at 7 months to 49 % at 36 months of age. Mean AFB1-lys concentrations at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months were 1·30 (range 0·09–5·79), 1·52 (range 0·06–6·35), 3·43 (range 0·15–65·60) and 3·70 (range 0·09–126·54) pg/mg albumin, respectively, and the percentage of children with detectable AFB1-lys was 10, 21, 18 and 62 %, respectively. No association was observed between aflatoxin exposure and stunting in multivariable analyses. Factors associated with childhood stunting were age, low birth weight, maternal height, stool myeloperoxidase and number of people sleeping in one room.
A relatively lower exposure to aflatoxin may not influence the linear growth of children. This finding indicates a threshold level of exposure for linear growth deficit and further investigation in other areas where higher concentrations of aflatoxin exposure exist.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
To inform the efficient allocation of testing resources, we evaluated the characteristics of those tested for COVID-19 to determine predictors of a positive test. Recent travel and exposure to a confirmed case were both highly predictive of positive testing. Symptom-based screening strategies alone may be inadequate to control the ongoing pandemic.
Innovation Concept: The Orange Book (OB) identifies drugs approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the FDA and serves as the gold standard reference for correct pharmacological therapies. It ties in closely with Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) modelling good stewardship in antimicrobial prescriptions. The book focuses on passive didactic learning instead of active learning, which was shown to have a greater influence on prescribing behaviour. Educational video games, a form of active learning, have been shown to improve clinical skills in medical training. Contagion is a role-playing video game providing an active way of teaching antimicrobial components of the OB and CWC guidelines. Method: Phase I of Contagion was qualitatively tested on students and physicians at McMaster University for teaching effectiveness, applicability to real-life scenarios, and enjoyability. Post-game play 12 participants scored different aspects of the game on a Likert scale. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The player is a rural physician treating infections in various communities. Each round, the player is given a crate of antibiotics. As communities are infected, the player is provided with clinical symptoms the patients present with. The player must identify the pathology and then correctly treat the communities. The player can treat empirically or order tests to identify the infectious organism. The player strategically navigates which communities to treat as there are limited actions per turn and the player must prevent communities from dying or infecting neighboring regions. Communities tend to build antibiotic resistance over time making first-line treatments unviable, thus careful strategizing and stewardship is essential. Active learning will occur when players are tasked with finding the correct answer to different presentations. After each turn, players will learn about the infecting organism, its phenotypes, and common infectious symptoms. This is considered passive learning. Conclusion: Contagion was well-received by physicians and medical students as an active learning tool to teach the OB and CWC guidelines. On preliminary user testing Contagion scored 5 in effectiveness in teaching treatments and 4.6 in teaching stewardship. An objective of this project is to perform large scale testing across schools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the learning components of the game. We hope to eventually create a tool that can be incorporated in continuing medical education for physicians.
Introduction: Epidemiologic and modeling studies suggest that between 45 and 70% of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Canada remain undiagnosed. The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL) recommends one-time screening of baby boomers (1945-1975). Screening programs in the US have shown a very high prevalence of previously undiagnosed HCV among patients seen in the emergency department (ED). We sought to assess the feasibility of implementing a targeted birth-cohort HCV screening program in a Canadian ED setting. Methods: Patients born from 1945 to 1975 presenting to the ED of a downtown Toronto hospital were offered HCV testing. Patients with life-threatening conditions, unable to provide verbal consent in English or intoxication were excluded. Blood samples were collected by finger prick on Dried Blood Spot (DBS) collection cards and tested for anti-HCV antibody with reflex to HCV RNA. Patients with positive HCV RNA were referred to a liver specialist. Results: During a 27-month period (July 2017 - Sept 2019), 8363 patients in the birth cohort presented to the ED during daytime hours. 80% (6714) met eligibility criteria, and 48.4% (3247) were offered testing. Screening was performed by non-medical staff (mean 8/day, median spots on DBS 4). 345 (10.6%) had been previously tested, and 639 (19.7%) declined. 2136 (65.8%) patients underwent testing: median age 58.4 years (40-82), 1117 male (52.3%). Of these, 45 patients (2.1%; 95% CI 1.5%-2.7%) were anti-HCV positive: 32 (76.2%) were HCV RNA positive, 10 (23.8%) negative and 3 not done due to inadequate DBS sample. 26 patients (81.3%) were linked to care and 3 (9.4%) lost to follow-up. HCV prevalence in the ED was significantly higher than the general Canadian population (2.1% vs 0.7%; p < 0.0001) but much lower than reported rates in American EDs (2.1% vs 10.3%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Acceptance of HCV screening in the ED birth cohort was high and easily performed using DBS to ensure the majority of positive samples were tested for HCV RNA. Challenges included implementation that limited number of people tested, and linkage to care for HCV positive patients. HCV prevalence among this ED birth cohort was higher than the general population but lower than seen in the ED in the US. This may in part be due to exclusion of individuals with more severe medical issues, refusal by higher risk subgroups, or population and healthcare system differences between countries.
Each year around 1/10,000 of general population sustain a traumatic brain injury (7,000 individual in UK) and as a result have an increased risk of epilepsy in the long term.
To the best of our knowledge there is not much literature available on incidence and prevalence of epilepsy following ABI in the group of patients who develop psychiatric presentation as a result.
To ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy in a group of in-patients with neuropsychiatric presentation admitted in a tertiary Brain Injury Neuropsychiatry Centre.
A cross sectional survey of healthcare records of 125 in-patients was carried out to ascertain the diagnosis of epilepsy. The current diagnosis of epilepsy and frequency of these patients’ seizures as well as history of early seizures following ABI were noted.
Out of 125 patients studied, 40 (32%) were diagnosed with epilepsy at some point following their brain injury or at the time of survey. Out of these, 35 patients had active epilepsy at the time of the survey with definite seizures witnessed and documented in the in-patients notes. Fifteen patients had had seizures in early phase following their ABI and no seizures reported since.
Patients who present with either cognitive impairment, challenging behaviour or and psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of epilepsy compared to those reported in general Brain Injury Neuro-rehabilitation setting. This could be explained by severity of ABI or the areas of brain damaged which may be involved in neuro-psychiatric presentation also causing epilepsy.
UK mental health services envisage that patients with a first presentation of psychosis are seen by an ad hoc assertive service for the first three years and then are transferred for further follow up to a community mental health team or to primary care.
We have reported on the three year outcomes of 62 patients who were treated in such an assertive service, compared to 62 patients who received treatment as usual. Outcomes in all domains were significantly better with the assertive service. These domains included employment, education, family life, relapses, readmission and concordance with medication.
We now report on an audit of outcomes at the end of the fourth year in both groups of patients; the exercise will be repeated at the end of the fifth year.
A note audit is being carried out on the two groups of patients.
Work on the audit is in progress at the time of writing. Early results indicate that some patients have had significant relapses since leaving the assertive service. This has led to significant bed usage by some patients. Other patients appear to have remained stable.
Relapse leads to a reduction of quality of life for the patients. Thus, in some cases there appears to be a reduction in the more advantageous quality of life outcomes once patients are referred to the community mental health team. This mirrors five year outcomes of first psychosis patients reported by the OPUS project.
Salvia is a plant which contains an active ingredient Salvinorin A which strongly is powerful selective Kappa agonist and activates vision inducing Kappa receptors. Its easy availability has resulted in deaths by suicide. It is banned in most of Europe except UK and is available in head shops as well as plant nurseries.
We aimed to investigate subjective experiences of Salvia intoxication and outcome after psychiatric assessment.
A small sample who came in contact with psychiatric services using Salvia more than five times a week were identified during the period September 2010 and February 2011. They were admitted in an assessment unit for up to a period of 72 hours for assessment and collection of data by completing a designed questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed on thirteen cases, 11 males and 2 females falling in 17–35 years range.
Studies have shown an association between parental anxiety and depression, and caretaking of children with developmental cognitive delays. There is little data in developing countries, such as Pakistan, concerning the impact of raising children with Mental Retardation, upon the quality of parent functioning and risk for psychopathology.
To evaluate for anxiety and depression among parents of children with Mental Retardation (MR).
This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Participants were 198 parents (99 fathers/99 mothers) of 100 children with the diagnosis of MR. The parents were assess for anxiety and depression using DSM IV criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Committee.
Significantly high proportion (p-value = 0.024) of mothers (89%) had anxiety, depression or both anxiety and depression together as compared to fathers (77%). Among mothers, 35% met criteria for anxiety, 40% for depression and 13% for both anxiety and depression. Among fathers 42% had anxiety, 31% depression and 3% both anxiety and depression. There was a significant association (Pvalue = 0.027) between gender of parent and individual psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression and anxiety and depression together. A significant association (pvalue = < 0.043) was also found between mother's anxiety, depression or both and degree of mental retardation of their children.
1. Parents of children with MR are at higher risk for anxiety, depression or both, needing mental health assessment.
2. There was correlation between mother's anxiety, depression or both and level of MR among children.