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Previous research indicates that prisoners have severe psychological distress. To assess their distress level and potential need for treatment, the present study compared the subjective psychological distress of long- and short-term prisoners with that of psychiatric and forensic patients.
Long- (n = 98) and short-term prisoners (n = 94) and forensic (n = 102) and psychiatric (n = 199) patients completed the German versions of the Symptom Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI).
In general, long-term prisoners showed the same level of mental distress as psychiatric patients and more than that reported by forensic patients. Short-term prisoners reported the least level of distress. Long- but not short-term prisoners showed clinically significant results on the scales for depression, paranoid ideation, and psychosis.
The improvements in psychiatric treatment for inmates demanded by many stakeholders need to differentiate between long- and short-term prisoners. Because depression seems to cause the most psychological distress among inmates, suicide prevention seems to be an important issue in prisons.
Stress and its associations with psychopathic traits have been widely studied. However, recent research suggests the distinction between psychological and physiological symptoms of subclinical stress experience. Possible differences regarding these two dimensions of stress and their relations to psychopathy factors have not been investigated yet. Hence, this is the first study on psychological and physiological subclinical stress levels of forensic patients with psychopathic personality traits. We expected to find distinct associations between stress dimensions and psychopathy factors. Therefore, we examined 164 forensic patients with a substance use disorder regarding their psychopathy scores and current stress levels, using the Psychopathy Personality Inventory (PPI) and the Subclinical Stress Questionnaire (SSQ). Our results indicate that only the experience of psychological stress and not physiological stress is predicted by psychopathy. More precisely, the psychopathy factor “Impulsive Antisociality” is a positive predictor of subclinical psychological stress symptoms, while the factor “Fearless Dominance” is a negative predictor. Thereby, gender has an influence as females are more likely to experience psychological and physiological stress. In conclusion, these results imply that forensic patients scoring high on the psychopathy factor “Impulsive Antisociality” experience high levels of psychological distress. This is in line with previous findings describing Impulsive Antisociality as a generally maladaptive trait manifesting in low adaptability and insufficient coping strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Study of the composition from diverse sources of the Universe helps to us to understand their evolution. Molecular spectroscopy provides detailed information of the observed objects. We present a small study of the starburst NGC 253 with ALMA at 1mm. We detect the prebiotic molecules NH2CHO, and CNCHO. We obtain the integrated intensity maps and abundances of HNCO, CH3OH, H3O+ and CH3C2H. We propose the use of Artificial Intelligence for big data to find prebiotic molecules in galaxies.
An excellent laboratory for studying large scale magnetic fields is the grand design face-on spiral galaxy M51. Due to wavelength-dependent Faraday depolarization, linearly polarized synchrotron emission at different radio frequencies gives a picture of the galaxy at different depths: Observations at L-band (1 – 2 GHz) probe the halo region while at C- and X-band (4 – 8 GHz) the linearly polarized emission probe the disk region of M51. We present new observations of M51 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at S-band (2 – 4 GHz), where previously no polarization observations existed, to shed new light on the transition region between the disk and the halo. We discuss a model of the depolarization of synchrotron radiation in a multilayer magneto-ionic medium and compare the model predictions to the multi-frequency polarization data of M51 between 1 – 8 GHz. The new S-band data are essential to distinguish between different models. Our study shows that the initial model parameters, i.e. the total regular and turbulent magnetic field strengths in the disk and halo of M51, need to be adjusted to successfully fit the models to the data.
Outflows from AGB stars enrich the Galactic environment with metals and inject mechanical energy into the ISM. Radio spectroscopy can recover both properties through observations of molecular lines. We present results from SWAG: “Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center”. The survey covers the entire Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), the inner 3.35° × 0.9° (∼480 × 130 pc) of the Milky Way that contains 5 × 107 M⊙ of molecular gas. Although our survey primarily targets the CMZ, we observe across the entire sightline through the Milky Way. AGB stars are revealed by their signature of double peaked 22 GHz water maser lines. They are distinguished by their spectral signatures and their luminosities, which reach up to 10−7 L⊙. Higher luminosities are usually associated with Young Stellar Objects located in CMZ star forming regions. We detect a population of ∼600 new water masers that can likely be associated with AGB outflows.
We study the evolution of G2 in a Compact Source Scenario, where G2 is the outflow from a low-mass central star moving on the observed orbit. This is done through 3D AMR simulations of the hydrodynamic interaction of G2 with the surrounding hot accretion flow. A comparison with observations is done by means of mock position-velocity (PV) diagrams. We found that a massive (Ṁw = 5× 10−7M⊙ yr−1) and slow (vw = 50 km s−1) outflow can reproduce G2’s properties. A faster outflow (vw = 400 km s−1) might also be able to explain the material that seems to follow G2 on the same orbit.
SWAG (“Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center”) is a multi-line interferometric survey toward the Center of the Milky Way conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The survey region spans the entire ~400 pc Central Molecular Zone and comprises ~42 spectral lines at pc spatial and sub-km/s spectral resolution. In addition, we deeply map continuum intensity, spectral index, and polarization at the frequencies where synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust sources emit. The observed spectral lines include many transitions of ammonia, which we use to construct maps of molecular gas temperature, opacity and gas formation temperature (see poster by Nico Krieger et al., this volume). Water masers pinpoint the sites of active star formation and other lines are good tracers for density, radiation field, shocks, and ionization. This extremely rich survey forms a perfect basis to construct maps of the physical parameters of the gas in this extreme environment.
With the help of 3D AMR hydrodynamical simulations we aim at understanding G2’s nature, recent evolution and fate in the coming years. By exploring the possible parameter space of the diffuse cloud scenario, we find that a starting point within the disc of young stars is favoured by the observations, which may hint at G2 being the result of stellar wind interactions.
Intrusive memories of traumatic events are a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder but little is known about the neurobiological formation of intrusions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the activity of the noradrenergic system during an intrusion-inducing stressor would influence subsequent intrusive memories.
We conducted an experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 118 healthy women. Participants received a single dose of either 10 mg yohimbine, stimulating noradrenergic activity, or 0.15 mg clonidine, inhibiting noradrenergic activity, or placebo. Subsequently, they watched an established trauma film which induced intrusions. The number of consecutive intrusions resulting from the trauma film, the vividness of the intrusions, and the degree of distress evoked by the intrusions were assessed during the following 4 days. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase were collected before and after the trauma film.
A significant time × treatment interaction for the number of intrusions and the vividness of intrusions indicated a different time course of intrusions depending on treatment. Post-hoc tests revealed a delayed decrease of intrusions and a delayed decrease of intrusion vividness after the trauma film in the yohimbine group compared with the clonidine and placebo groups. Furthermore, after yohimbine administration, a significant increase in salivary cortisol levels was observed during the trauma film.
Our findings indicate that pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system during an emotionally negative event makes an impact on consecutive intrusive memories and their vividness in healthy women. The noradrenergic system seems to be involved in the formation of intrusive memories.