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People with severe enduring mental illness (SMI) are at least twice as likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population, with 60% of excess mortality rate attributable to physical illness.
We report implementation in primary care of screening and intervention for cardiometabolic risk factors in SMI in Cheshire, UK. Data search was performed through the EMIS software provider.
453 patients (55.8% male 44.2% female) on the SMI Register in Cheshire, UK were screened for dysglycaemia (screening rate 57.3 %) and dyslipidaemia (screening rate 36.2%). There were no differences in BMI by gender, but a greater proportion of women (25% vs 20%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Fasting glucose was in the impaired fasting glycaemia range (6.1-6.9mM) in 6.5% of those screened and at or above the threshold for type 2 diabetes (7.0mM) in 17.3% of the group. Fasting serum cholesterol was high at >5mmol/L in 62.8% of those screened for whom the mean cholesterol was 6.2±0.8 mmol/L). Despite high rates of dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, systolic blood pressure was greater than 140mmHg in only 13% of those examined. 61% were active smokers.
Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed a direct relation between fasting glucose levels and BMI (beta = 0.22, p< 0.001) independent of age, gender, systolic blood pressure and fasting cholesterol and triglycerides.
There is scope for cardiometabolic risk reduction in patients with severe mental illness. Measures to encourage weight reduction and smoking cessation would be vital in risk reduction strategies.
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of an interface separating a thin liquid film and a hydrodynamically passive ambient medium, subject to normal electrostatic forcing, are investigated. A reduced-order model is developed for the case where both fluids are taken to be leaky dielectrics (LD). Cases of time periodic as well as steady forcing are studied. In the former case, an important result is the elucidation of two forms of resonant instability than can occur in LD films. These correspond to an inertial resonance due to mechanical inertia of the fluid and an inertialess resonance due to charge capacitance at the interface that is similar to mechanically forced films with an insoluble surfactant. In the case of steady forcing, the long-time dynamics exhibits spontaneous sliding as the interface approaches the wall, for the two limiting cases of a perfect conductor–perfect dielectric pair as well as a pair of perfect dielectrics. Under these limits, only the normal component of the Maxwell stress at the interface is significant and the interface dynamics resembles that of a Rayleigh–Taylor unstable interface. For a general pair of leaky dielectrics studied in the limit of fast relaxation times, the presence of interfacial charge prevents the onset of sliding. For the special case when the square of the conductivity ratio equals the permittivity ratio, the interface exhibits cascading structures, similar to those reported for the long-wave Marangoni instability.
Recent studies illustrate how machine learning (ML) can be used to bypass a core challenge of molecular modeling: the trade-off between accuracy and computational cost. Here, we assess multiple ML approaches for predicting the atomization energy of organic molecules. Our resulting models learn the difference between low-fidelity, B3LYP, and high-accuracy, G4MP2, atomization energies and predict the G4MP2 atomization energy to 0.005 eV (mean absolute error) for molecules with less than nine heavy atoms (training set of 117,232 entries, test set 13,026) and 0.012 eV for a small set of 66 molecules with between 10 and 14 heavy atoms. Our two best models, which have different accuracy/speed trade-offs, enable the efficient prediction of G4MP2-level energies for large molecules and are available through a simple web interface.
The dynamics of an interface between a thin liquid–vapour bilayer undergoing evaporation is studied. Both phases are considered to be hydrodynamically and thermally active, with momentum and thermal inertia taken into account. A reduced-order model based on the weighted-residual integral boundary layer method is used to investigate the dynamical behaviour for two cases, viz., phase change in the absence of gravity and then phase change in the presence of gravity. In the first case, it is shown that evaporative instability may cause rupture of either liquid or vapour layer depending on system parameters. Close to interfacial rupture, the disjoining pressure due to intermolecular forces results in the formation of drops (bubbles) separated by a thin film for low liquid (vapour) hold-up. Momentum inertia is shown to have a stabilizing effect, while thermal inertia has a destabilizing effect. In the second case, evaporative suppression of Rayleigh–Taylor (R–T) instability shows emergence of up to two neutral wavenumbers. Weak nonlinear analysis of these neutral wavenumbers suggests that the instability may be either supercritical or subcritical depending on the rate of evaporation. At high rates of evaporation, both neutral wavenumbers are supercritical and computations on the interface evolution lead to nonlinear saturated steady states. Momentum inertia slows down the rate of interface deformation and results in an oscillatory approach to saturation. Thermal inertia results in larger interface deformation and the saturated steady state is shifted closer to the wall. At very low evaporation rates, only one neutral wavenumber of subcritical nature exists. The nonlinear evolution of the interface in this case is then similar to pure R–T instability, exhibiting spontaneous lateral sliding as it approaches the wall.
The nonlinear evolution of an interface between a perfect conducting liquid and a perfect dielectric gas subject to periodic electrostatic forcing is studied under the long-wave approximation. It is shown that inertial thin films become unstable to finite-wavelength Faraday modes at the onset, prior to the long-wave pillaring instability reported in the lubrication limit. It is further shown that the pillaring-mode instability is subcritical in nature, with the interface approaching either the top or the bottom wall, depending on the liquid–gas holdup. On the other hand, the Faraday modes exhibit subharmonic or harmonic oscillations that nonlinearly saturate to standing waves at low forcing amplitudes. Unlike the pillaring mode, wherein the interface approaches the wall, Faraday modes may exhibit saturated standing waves when the instability is subcritical. At higher forcing amplitudes, the interface may approach either wall, again depending on the liquid–gas holdup. It is also shown that a gravitationally unstable configuration of such thin films, under the long-wave approximation, cannot be stabilized by periodic electrostatic forcing, unlike mechanical Faraday forcing. In this case, it is observed that the interface exhibits oscillatory sliding behaviour, approaching the wall in an ‘earthworm-like’ motion.
This study investigates the phenomenon of targeted energy transfer (TET) from a linear oscillator to a nonlinear attachment behaving as a nonlinear energy sink for both transient and stochastic excitations. First, the dynamics of the underlying Hamiltonian system under deterministic transient loading is studied. Assuming that the transient dynamics can be partitioned into slow and fast components, the governing equations of motion corresponding to the slow flow dynamics are derived and the behaviour of the system is analysed. Subsequently, the effect of noise on the slow flow dynamics of the system is investigated. The Itô stochastic differential equations for the noisy system are derived and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations are numerically solved to gain insights into the behaviour of the system on TET. The effects of the system parameters as well as noise intensity on the optimal regime of TET are studied. The analysis reveals that the interaction of nonlinearities and noise enhances the optimal TET regime as predicted in deterministic analysis.
Aerofoils operating in a turbulent flow generate broadband noise by scattering vorticity into sound at the leading edge. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness by which serrations, or undulations, introduced onto the leading edge, can substantially reduce broadband leading-edge noise. All of this work has focused on sinusoidal (single-wavelength) leading-edge serration profiles. In this paper, a new leading-edge serration geometry is proposed which provides significantly greater noise reductions compared to the maximum noise reductions achievable by single-wavelength serrations of the same amplitude. This is achieved through destructive interference between different parts of the aerofoil leading edge, and therefore involves a fundamentally different noise reduction mechanism from conventional single-wavelength serrations. The new leading-edge serration profiles simply comprise the superposition of two single-wavelength components of different wavelength, amplitude and phase with the objective of forming two roots that are sufficiently close together and separated in the streamwise direction. Compact sources located at these root locations then interfere, leading to less efficient radiation than single-wavelength geometries. A detailed parametric study is performed experimentally to investigate the sensitivity of the noise reductions to the profile geometry. A simple model is proposed to explain the noise reduction mechanism for these double-wavelength serration profiles and shown to be in close agreement with the measured noise reduction spectra. The study is primarily performed on flat plates in an idealized turbulent flow. The paper concludes by introducing the double-wavelength serration on a 10 % thick aerofoil, where near-identical noise reductions are obtained compared to the flat plate.
Metal–graphene composites are sought after for various applications. A hybrid light-weight foam of nickel (Ni) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), called Ni-rGO, is reported here for small molecule oxidations and thereby their sensing. Methanol oxidation and non-enzymatic glucose sensing are attempted with the Ni-rGO foam via electrocatalytically, and an enhanced methanol oxidation current density of 4.81 mA/cm2 is achieved, which is ~1.7 times higher than that of bare Ni foam. In glucose oxidation, the Ni-rGO electrode shows a better sensitivity over bare Ni foam electrode where it could detect glucose linearly over a concentration range of 10 µM to 4.5 mM with a very low detection limit of 3.6 µM. This work demonstrates the synergistic effects of metal and graphene in oxidative processes, and also shows the feasibility of scalable metal–graphene composite inks development for small molecule printable sensors and fuel cell catalysts.
A heavy-over-light configuration of a fluid bilayer may be stabilized in the presence of a phase change if the system consists of a single component. However, if the fluid is composed of a binary mixture with the more volatile component having the lower surface tension, it is known that a Marangoni instability occurs. This instability owes its origin to concentration gradients created by the phase change, even though the phase change otherwise has a stabilizing effect. In this study, it is shown via a nonlinear model under a long-wavelength approximation, that this Marangoni destabilization is insufficient to cause a rupture of the interface under practical operating conditions. Computations reveal that the stabilizing effect of the phase change dominates as the film becomes thin by reversing the direction of the Marangoni flow, thereby halting the instability and any hope of rupture.
Despite the frequency of disasters in Africa, almost nothing is known about ethnic affiliations in relation to psychopathology after such incidents. This study examined the mental health outcomes of members of 7 major ethnic groups exposed to the 1998 terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
Approximately 8 to 10 months after the disaster, 229 civilian employees, 99 locally engaged staff workers of the US State Department and the US Agency for International Development, and 64 workers of the Kenyan Red Cross Society (total N=392) were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Additional data were gathered on demographic characteristics, disaster exposures and injuries, and ethnic affiliations.
Disaster-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly less prevalent among members of the Kikuyu group (28%) and post-disaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among members of the Meru group (64%), compared with all others in the sample. Preexisting psychopathology and disaster injury were independently associated with bombing-related psychopathology.
Further study of disaster-related psychopathology in relation to African ethnic affiliations is needed to better understand these associations and to assist in planning resources and interventions for African disaster survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 360–365)
This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental investigation into the effectiveness of sinusoidal leading edge serrations on aerofoils for the reduction of the noise generated by the interaction with turbulent flow. A detailed parametric study is performed to investigate the sensitivity of the noise reductions to the serration amplitude and wavelength. The study is primarily performed on flat plates in an idealized turbulent flow, which we demonstrate captures the same behaviour as when identical serrations are introduced onto three-dimensional aerofoils. The influence on the noise reduction of the turbulence integral length scale is also studied. An optimum serration wavelength is identified whereby maximum noise reductions are obtained, corresponding to when the transverse integral length scale is approximately one-fourth the serration wavelength. This paper proves that, at the optimum serration wavelength, adjacent valley sources are excited incoherently. One of the most important findings of this paper is that, at the optimum serration wavelength, the sound power radiation from the serrated aerofoil varies inversely proportional to the Strouhal number
are frequency, serration amplitude and flow speed, respectively. A simple model is proposed to explain this behaviour. Noise reductions are observed to generally increase with increasing frequency until the frequency at which aerofoil self-noise dominates the interaction noise. Leading edge serrations are also shown to reduce aerofoil self-noise. The mechanism for this phenomenon is explored through particle image velocimetry measurements. Finally, the lift and drag of the serrated aerofoil are obtained through direct measurement and compared against the straight edge baseline aerofoil. It is shown that aerodynamic performance is not substantially degraded by the introduction of the leading edge serrations on the aerofoil.
Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) of the moving vocal tract during running speech production is an important emerging tool for speech production research providing dynamic information of a speaker's upper airway from the entire midsagittal plane or any other scan plane of interest. There have been several advances in the development of speech rtMRI and corresponding analysis tools, and their application to domains such as phonetics and phonological theory, articulatory modeling, and speaker characterization. An important recent development has been the open release of a database that includes speech rtMRI data from five male and five female speakers of American English each producing 460 phonetically balanced sentences. The purpose of the present paper is to give an overview and outlook of the advances in rtMRI as a tool for speech research and technology development.
Our new compilation of interferometric CO data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. Comparing the sizes of the molecular gas disk and gas mass fractions to early-type and late-type galaxies, about half of the sample show similar properties to early-type galaxies, which have compact gas disks and low gas mass fractions. We also find that sources with extended gas disks and large gas mass fractions may become disk-dominated galaxies.
Memecylon wayanadense Ratheesh, Sivu & Pradeep, a new species of Melastomataceae from the Wayanad forests of Kerala, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is allied to Memecylon angustifolium, M. rivulare and M. sivadasanii but differs in habit, leaf shape, sclereid type, inflorescence type and position, and the shape and size of the sepals and petals. An UPGMA analysis of 20 RAPD primers resulted in two major clusters with Memecylon sivadasanii in one cluster and M. rivulare, M. angustifolium and M. wayanadense in the second cluster. Memecylon wayanadense forms a subgroup within the second cluster.
A study of the Faraday instability of diffuse interfaces between pairs of
miscible liquids of different densities, by means of experiments and by a
nonlinear numerical model, is presented. The experimental set-up consisted of a
rectangular cell in which the lighter liquid was placed above the denser one.
The cell in this initially stable configuration was then subjected to vertical
vibrations. The subsequent behaviour of the ‘interface’ between
the two liquids was observed with a high-speed camera. This study shows that
above a certain acceleration threshold an instability developed at the
interface. The amplitude of the instability grew during the experiments which
then led to the mixing of the liquids. The instability finally disappeared once
the two liquids were fully mixed over a volume, considerably larger than the
initial diffuse region. The results of a companion two-dimensional nonlinear
numerical model that employs a finite volume method show very good agreement
with the experiments. A physical explanation of the instability and the
observations are advanced.
Pioneering studies of motor cortex by Georgopoulos and colleagues (e.g. Georgopoulos et al., 1982) established that “population vectors,” constructed from weighted averages of the responses of single neurons, can accurately predict behavioral variables, such as movement direction. This approach has been used to study population coding in a number of cortical systems and has led to the view that cortical neurons act as independent processors of information (e.g. Gochin et al., 1994). However, some recent work has challenged this interpretation of neural population activity. For example, Schneidman et al. (2003) proposed interpreting neural ensemble activity by comparing ensemble information with information represented by the single neurons that comprise the ensemble. In a synergistic coding scheme, ensembles encode more than the sum of the component neurons. The advantage of synergy is that there can be a massive gain in information from the activity of multiple neurons. In a redundant coding scheme, the removal of individual neurons has little effect on encoding and thus the ensembles can be less noisy and less prone to errors. In Narayanan et al. (2005), we adapted the information-theoretical framework proposed by Schneidman et al. (2003) to measures of decoding of the performance of a delayed response task with activity from the rodent motor cortex. The predictive relationship between neural firing rates and a categorical measure of behavior, e.g. correct vs. error performance of a reaction time task, was quantified using statistical classifiers.