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Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Introduction: Although oral rehydration therapy is recommended for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with none to some dehydration, intravenous (IV) rehydration is still commonly administered to these children in high-income countries. IV rehydration is associated with pain, anxiety, and emergency department (ED) revisits in children with AGE. A better understanding of the factors associated with IV rehydration is needed to inform knowledge translation strategies. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) randomized, controlled trials of oral probiotics in children with AGE-associated diarrhea. Eligible children were aged 3-48 months and reported > 3 watery stools in a 24-hour period. The primary outcome was administration of IV rehydration at the index ED visit. We used mixed-effects logistic regression model to explore univariable and multivariable relationships between IV rehydration and a priori risk factors. Results: From the parent study sample of 1848 participants, 1846 had data available for analysis: mean (SD) age of 19.1 ± 11.4 months, 45.4% females. 70.2% (1292/1840) vomited within 24 hours of the index ED visit and 34.1% (629/1846) received ondansetron in the ED. 13.0% (240/1846) were administered IV rehydration at the index ED visit, and 3.6% (67/1842) were hospitalized. Multivariable predictors of IV rehydration were Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) score [compared to none: mild to moderate (OR: 8.1, CI: 5.5-11.8); severe (OR: 45.9, 95% CI: 20.1-104.7), P < 0.001], ondansetron in the ED (OR: 1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6, P = 0.003), previous healthcare visit for the same illness [compared to no prior visit: prior visit with no IV (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9); prior visit with IV (OR: 10.5, 95% CI: 3.2-34.8), P < 0.001], and country [compared to Canada: US (OR: 4.1, CI: 2.3-7.4, P < 0.001]. Significantly more participants returned to the ED with symptoms of AGE within 3 days if IV fluids were administered at the index visit [30/224 (13.4%) versus 88/1453 (6.1%), P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Higher CDS scores, antiemetic use, previous healthcare visits and country were independent predictors of IV rehydration which was also associated with increased ED revisits. Knowledge translation focused on optimizing the use of antiemetics (i.e. for those with dehydration) and reducing the geographic variation in IV rehydration use may improve the ED experience and reduce ED-revisits.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
African turnipweed (Sisymbrium thellungii O. E.Schulz) is an emerging problematic broadleaf weed of the northern grain region of Australia. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, light, salinity, pH, seed burial depth, and the amount of wheat crop residue on germination and emergence of two Australian S. thellungii weed populations (population C, cropped area; population F, fence line). Both populations behaved similarly across different environmental conditions, except in the residue study. Although the seeds of both populations of S. thellungii could germinate under complete darkness, germination was best (~95%) under light/dark conditions at the 20/10 C temperature regime. Both populations of S. thellungii germinated over a wide range of day/night temperatures (15/5, 20/10, 25/15, and 30/20 C). Osmotic stress had negative effects on germination, with 54% seeds (averaged over populations) able to germinate at −0.1MPa. Complete germination inhibition for both populations was observed at −0.8MPa osmotic potential. Both populations germinated at sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 mM, beyond which germination was completely inhibited. There were substantial reductions in seed germination, 32% (averaged over populations) under highly acidic conditions (pH 4.0) as compared with the control (water: pH 6.4). Seed germination of both populations on the soil surface was 77%, and no seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 1 cm. The addition of 6 Mg ha−1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue reduced the emergence of the C and F populations of S. thellungii by 75% and 64%, respectively, as compared with the control (no residue). Information gathered from this study provides a better understanding of the factors favorable for germination and emergence of S. thellungii, which will aid in developing management strategies in winter crops, especially wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.).
Introduction: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia, can develop or worsen in the early postpartum period, often following discharge from hospital, resulting in severe preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. Due to a lack of routine early out-patient follow-up, many women with postpartum HDP present to the emergency department (ED) with severe hypertension or symptoms of preeclampsia (e.g., headache). In the ED, postpartum HDP can be difficult for clinicians to recognize (due to vague presenting symptom) and manage (due to lower blood pressure targets and concern of medication safety). ED clinicians recognized a need for timely recognition and effective treatments for postpartum HDP in the ED to improve maternal outcomes. As such, as part of a multi-step quality improvement initiative, an interdisciplinary team developed and implemented a postpartum HDP management protocol (consisting of nursing and physician protocols and an electronic order set embedded in the electronic medical record). The aims of this specific project were to assess: 1) the use of this clinical management protocol in the ED; and 2) its impacts on clinical care. Methods: This quality improvement project used electronic medical records to identify: 1) ED visits for postpartum HDP for postpartum women ages 20-50; 2) utilization of the postpartum HDP order set; and 3) clinical care outcomes (consultation and admission). Patient population characteristics and clinical care measures were summarized with descriptive statistics and compared using a before and after design. Changes in the utilization of the protocol were assessed using run charts. Results: 540 women with postpartum HDP were seen in the four Calgary EDs in the 16-month period following protocol implementation compared with 335 women in the preceding 12 months. The protocol was used in 46% of these 540 women, and increased over the 16 month follow-up period. We found an increase in the frequency of consultation of specialists (47% to 52%) and admissions (26% to 29%) amongst these women after protocol implementation. Conclusion: This initial assessment demonstrated good uptake of a postpartum HDP management protocol including referral for consultation and admission to hospital for blood pressure management. Future steps include evaluation of the impacts of this management protocol on important patient outcomes.
Mode changing is a phenomenon where a pulsar’s emission abruptly changes between two or more quasi-stable modes. We have discovered mode changing in the Black Widow Pulsar (PSR B1957+20), a first detection of mode changing in a millisecond pulsar. On average, a mode change occurs every 1.7 seconds. Multiple components across the pulse profile participate in the mode changing, indicating that this is likely caused by a global change in the pulsar’s magnetosphere.
In a magnetohydrodynamic description of a plasma, the shear Alfvén wave is characterized by a continuous spectrum (the MHD continuum) which results from a singularity at ω ≃ k||(r)VA(r), where ω is the frequency, k|| is the wave number along the direction of the magnetic field and VA = B0/(4ρπ)1/2 is the Alfvén speed, and r is the direction of inhomo-geniety. The associated electromagnetic fields become large at this resonance layer [in fact, in ideal MHD they become singular], and if some dissipation is allowed, the transfer of energy from the waves to the electrons can take place. These continuum modes are localized in space, and can be effective in heating plasmas in narrow regions around the resonanct surface. Recently, 1-3 a new class of nonsingular global eigenmodes of the plasma have been discovered which are wide spread in the plasma, and could effectively transfer energy to the bulk of the plasma. These modes arise because of a strong coupling between the shear and the evanascent compressional mode. The coupling is provided by gradients of density, equilibrium current and nonideal effects like finite ω/ωci, where ωci is the ion cyclotron frequency. In order to understand the effectiveness of these modes to heat plasmas, i.e., to determine the effective impedance, the energy deposition profiles, parametric dependence of the heating efficiency, etc., a kinetic theory with the electron parallel dynamics is needed. We have developed a detailed kinetic theory to study the structure of the continuum as well as global eigenmodes in an inhomogenous current carrying plasma. The global modes are comparatively much less damped than the continuum modes (which become discrete in the kinetic theory) and hence are easier to excite. The implication, of course, is that the large part of energy transfer in a Alfvén Wave experiment would be mediated through these global modes. This theoretical conjecture is already confirmed in laboratory experiments on PRETEXT Tokamak.
I will present the basic theoretical analysis as well as discuss the implications of these findings.
Explicitly covariant dispersion relations for a variety of plasma waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas are derived in a systematic manner from a fully covariant plasma formulation. One needs to invoke relatively little known invariant combinations constructed from the ambient electromagnetic fields and the wave vector to accomplish the program. The implication of this work applied to the self-induced transparency effect is discussed. Some problems arising from the inconsistent use of relativity are pointed out.
To assess cardiac functions in adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy.
A prospective, interventional, academic centre based study was conducted on 25 children with adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy. All patients underwent pulsed 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography, pulse oximetry and 12-lead electrocardiography. These assessments were repeated three months later to determine the impact of adenotonsillectomy.
There were significant differences in mean arterial oxygen saturation, pulmonary flow acceleration time and mean pulmonary artery pressure post-operatively. Adenotonsillectomy led to significant improvements in pulmonary flow acceleration time and pulmonary flow velocity time index, while tonsillectomy resulted in right ventricular early and late diastolic velocity index improvement.
Upper airway obstruction in children affects cardiac functioning and this can subsequently lead to morbidity and delayed growth. Hence, revision of surgical indications is advocated in adenotonsillar hypertrophy to avoid irreversible damage to cardiopulmonary functions.
We apply gravitational lensing statistics to: (1) place a limit on the cosmological constant (ΩΛ); (2) place a limit on the average red-shift (< z >) of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs); (3) investigate models of galaxy evolution to see how compatible these models are with lensing statistics. We also point out the sources of uncertainty in lensing statistics, leading to uncertainty in the results.
Weeds are a significant problem in crop production and their management in modern agriculture is crucial to avoid yield losses and ensure food security. Intensive agricultural practices, changing climate, and natural disasters affect weed dynamics and that requires a change in weed management protocols. The existing manual control options are no longer viable because of labor shortages; chemical control options are limited by ecodegradation, health hazards, and development of herbicide resistance in weeds. We are therefore reviewing some potential nonconventional weed management strategies for modern agriculture that are viable, feasible, and efficient. Improvement in tillage regimes has long been identified as an impressive weed-control measure. Harvest weed seed control and seed predation have been shown as potential tools for reducing weed emergence and seed bank reserves. Development in the field of allelopathy for weed management has led to new techniques for weed control. The remarkable role of biotechnological advancements in developing herbicide-resistant crops, bioherbicides, and harnessing the allelopathic potential of crops is also worth mentioning in a modern weed management program. Thermal weed management has also been observed as a useful technique, especially under conservation agriculture systems. Last, precision weed management has been elaborated with sufficient details. The role of remote sensing, modeling, and robotics as an integral part of precision weed management has been highlighted in a realistic manner. All these strategies are viable for today's agriculture; however, site-specific selection and the use of right combinations will be the key to success. No single strategy is perfect, and therefore an integrated approach may provide better results. Future research is needed to explore the potential of these strategies and to optimize them on technological and cultural bases. The adoption of such methods may improve the efficiency of cropping systems under sustainable and conservation practices.
This article discusses the role of materials science in the growth and processing of silicon that made modern microelectronics possible. The influence of defects on the electronic properties of silicon is explored, followed by the production of electronic-grade silicon and its conversion into macroscopically dislocation-free doped silicon crystals. The intricacies of dopant distributions in as-grown crystals are also discussed. Oxidation, ion implantation, and metallization are essential elements of device processing, and their salient features are emphasized. The electromigration behavior of interconnects and attempts to prevent it are also introduced.
AlN single crystals were grown on AlN/SiC seeds by sublimation of AlN powder in TaC crucibles in a nitrogen atmosphere. The seeds were produced by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of AlN on SiC crystals. The influence of growth temperature, growth time and source-to-seed distance on the crystallinity and the crystal growth rate were investigated. Crystals were grown in an RF heated sublimation reactor at growth temperatures ranging from 1800-2000°C, at a pressure of 600 Torr, nitrogen flow-rate of 100 sccm and source-to-seed distances of 10 and 35 mm. At 1870°C and a source-to-seed distance of 35 mm, isolated crystals were observed with few instances of coalescence. At 1930°C, a source-to-seed distance of 10 mm and longer growth times (~30 hrs), crystal coalescence was achieved. Above 1930°C, the decomposition of SiC was evidently affecting the growth morphology and resulted in growth of polycrystalline AlN. After an initial nucleation period, the observed growth rates (10-30 µm/hr) were in close agreement with predictions of a growth model that assumed gas-phase diffusion controlled growth. Optical and electron microscope observations revealed step-flow growth, while X-ray diffraction results showed the single crystal nature of the grown material. Single crystalline AlN was grown over surface areas of 200-300 mm2 and was transparent and essentially colorless.
Field experiments were conducted in Punjab, India, in 2011 and 2012 to study the integrated effect of planting pattern [uniform rows (20-cm spacing) and paired rows (15-, 25-, and 15-cm spacing)], cultivars (PR-115 and IET-21214), and weed control treatments (nontreated control, pendimethalin 750 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-sodium 25 g ai ha−1, and pendimethalin 750 g ha−1 followed by bispyribac-sodium 25 g ha−1) on weed suppression and rice grain yield in dry-seeded rice. In the nontreated control, IET-21214 had higher grain yield than PR-115 in both planting patterns. However, such differences were not observed within the herbicide treatment. IET-21214 in paired rows, even in nontreated control, provided grain yield (4.7 t ha−1) similar to that in uniform rows coupled with the sole application of pendimethalin (4.3 t ha−1) and bispyribac-sodium (5.0 t ha−1). In uniform rows, sequential application of pendimethalin (PRE) and bispyribac-sodium (POST) provided the highest grain yield among all the weed control treatments and this treatment produced grain yield of 5.9 and 6.1 t ha−1 for PR-115 and IET-21214, respectively. Similarly, in paired rows, PR-115 in paired rows treated with sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium had highest grain yield (6.1 t ha−1) among all the weed control treatments. However, IET-21214 with the sole application of bispyribac-sodium produced grain yield similar to the sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium. At 30 days after sowing, PR-115 in paired rows coupled with pendimethalin application accrued weed biomass (10.7 g m−2) similar to the sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium coupled with uniform rows (8.1 g m−2). Similarly, IET-21214 with bispyribac-sodium application provided weed control similar to the sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium. Our study implied that grain yield of some cultivars could be improved by exploring their competitiveness through paired-row planting patterns with less use of herbicides.
The looming water crisis and shortage of labor during rice transplanting in northwest India have led researchers to develop alternative methods to transition away from puddled transplanted rice. In this context, dry-seeded rice (DSR) is emerging as an efficient production technology to replace puddled transplanted rice. Weeds, however, are the main biological constraints to its success. A study comprising 12 treatments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PRE (pendimethalin and pyrazosulfuron) and POST herbicides (bispyribac, penoxsulam, and azimsulfuron) applied either alone or in a sequence for weed control in dry-seeded fine rice cv. ‘Punjab Mehak 1’. Results indicated that the single application of pendimethalin (750 g ai ha−1) PRE, pyrazosulfuron (15 g ai ha−1) PRE, bispyribac-sodium (25 g ai ha−1) POST, penoxsulam (25 g ai ha−1) POST, and azimsulfuron (20 g ai ha−1) POST reduced total weed biomass by 75, 68, 73, 70, and 72%, respectively, compared with the nontreated control at flowering stage of the crop. Azimsulfuron POST and pyrazosulfuron PRE proved effective against purple nutsedge and crowfootgrass, respectively. Chinese sprangletop, large crabgrass, and junglerice were effectively controlled with pendimethalin PRE. POST application of bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam provided effective control of rice flatsedge. Compared to the nontreated control, grain yield following the single application of pendimethalin PRE, pyrazosulfuron PRE, bispyribac-sodium POST, penoxsulam POST, and azimsulfuron POST increased by 149, 119, 138, 124, and 144%, respectively. The sequential application of herbicides proved better than single applications. The lowest weed biomass was observed with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE followed by azimsulfuron POST, and rice yielded 228% more than the nontreated control following this treatment. The results of this study are important for farmers growing DSR in making decisions regarding the application of POST herbicides, according to existing weed flora in the field.
Due to the poor positive predictive value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for gonorrhoea when applied to a low-prevalence setting, current guidelines recommend the use of supplementary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a different gene for confirmation of true positives in urogenital specimens. This study sought to standardize and evaluate performance of an in-house opa gene-based PCR assay for gonorrhoea compared to assays targeting the porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene. Four hundred samples (300 endocervical, 100 urethral swabs) from patients attending STD clinics in New Delhi, India were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the opa-based PCR were 100%, 97·9%, 89·5% and 100%, respectively. In females, the use of NAATs provided enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Weeds are a major biotic constraint to aerobic rice production in Asia. Research is needed on the effects of cultural practices on weed management in aerobic rice, including techniques such as planting pattern and competitive cultivars. Field experiments were conducted in Punjab, India, in the wet seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of weeds and two rice cultivars [PR 115 and Punjab (P.) Mehak 1] in relation to planting pattern (uniform rows [23-cm row spacing] and paired rows [15-, 30-, and 15-cm row spacings]) under aerobic conditions. Junglerice and rice flatsedge were the dominant weed species during the early stages of the crop, while Chinese sprangletop and large crabgrass were the predominant species during flowering stage of the crop. Weed dry matter was not affected by planting pattern of P. Mehak 1; however, for PR 115, weed dry matter was greater in rice grown in uniform rows (244 g m−2) than in paired rows (183 g m−2). Planting patterns did not affect weed-free crop growth and yield, but weeds tended to be more abundant in the uniform planting system, particularly under cultivar PR 115. Consequently, this cultivar grew and yielded better under the paired rows when weeds were present. The cultivar PR 115 had greater yield potential than P. Mehak 1, but growth and productivity of P. Mehak 1 were unaffected by the planting patterns, suggesting better competitive ability against weeds than PR 115. The results imply that yield of some aerobic rice cultivars may be improved by exploring competitiveness of rice cultivars through paired row planting patterns. There is a need to study plasticity changes for cultivars which respond with more competiveness in paired rows. The identified traits could be useful as selection criteria for screening weed-competitive cultivars in paired row pattern.
Remote Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RPCVD) has been used to grow GexSi1−x/Si heteroepitaxial thin films at low temperatures (∼450°C). In situ RHEED has been used to confirm that smooth, single crystal heteroepitaxial films can be grown by RPCVD. Plan-view and cross-sectional TEM have been employed to study the microstructure of the heteroepitaxial films. Lattice imaging high resolution TEM (HRTEM) has shown perfect epitaxial lattice alignment at the heterojunction interfaces. GexSi1−x/Si films which exceed their CLT's appreciably show dense Moiré fringes under plan-view TEM. The spacings between the fringes have been used to estimate the relaxed lattice constants. In addition to the inhomogeneous strain observed in-XTEM, Selected Area electron Diffraction (SAD) analysis of the interfaces displays two split patterns. The spacings between the diffraction spots have been used to calculate the lattice constants in the epitaxial films in different crystal directions, which agree very well with the prediction by Vegard's law as well as the estimate from plan-view TEM analysis. HRTEM analysis also reveals the crystallographic nature of the interfacial misfit dislocations in the relaxed films.
Thin film stresses accompanying the nucleation and growth of NiSi2, resulting from the interaction of polycrystalline nickel films with (001) and (111) silicon substrates, have been measured at an annealing temperature of 825° C. Results Indicate a significantly larger stress reduction during the formation of NiSi2 on (111) silicon ( ~ 200 MPa) whereas the stress reduction is comparatively small (50–100 MPa) for the formation of NiSi2 on (001) silicon. TEM studies reveal that for NiSi2 on (111) silicon, two sets of dislocations in edge or mixed orientation are initially produced - one set consisting of Shockleys spaced 25Onm and a second set consisting of 5Onm spaced Shockleys; dislocations and their Burgers vector lie in the growth interface. For NiSi2 on (001) silicon, dislocations are rarely observed, however, a large concentration of ledges or facets are observed in an orthogonal network lying at the NiSi2 - (001)Si interface.
It is argued thai the observed stress reduction of NiSi2 on (111)Si is due to concurrent dislocation multiplication and interfacial glide of the Shockley partials. Larger compressive stresses of NiSi2 on (111) silicon at the annealing temperature is attributed to the accumulation of the edge type Shockleys present in the NiSi2 phase. In contrast, the negligible decrease in stress during the formation of NiSi2 on (001) silicon is believed to result from the presence of sessile misfit compensating ledges which lie at the NiSi2-Si interface.