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Differential susceptibility theory (DST) posits that individuals differ in their developmental plasticity: some children are highly responsive to both environmental adversity and support, while others are less affected. According to this theory, “plasticity” genes that confer risk for psychopathology in adverse environments may promote superior functioning in supportive environments. We tested DST using a broad measure of child genetic liability (based on birth parent psychopathology), adoptive home environmental variables (e.g., marital warmth, parenting stress, and internalizing symptoms), and measures of child externalizing problems (n = 337) and social competence (n = 330) in 54-month-old adopted children from the Early Growth and Development Study. This adoption design is useful for examining DST because children are placed at birth or shortly thereafter with nongenetically related adoptive parents, naturally disentangling heritable and postnatal environmental effects. We conducted a series of multivariable regression analyses that included Gene × Environment interaction terms and found little evidence of DST; rather, interactions varied depending on the environmental factor of interest, in both significance and shape. Our mixed findings suggest further investigation of DST is warranted before tailoring screening and intervention recommendations to children based on their genetic liability or “sensitivity.”
In this process-based study, we introduced a collocation tool with a new interface and advanced search features and examined how a class of EFL college students interacted with it. To elicit their tool consultation behaviors, a vocabulary test with collocation questions was designed. The students’ use of the tool to answer the vocabulary questions was screen-recorded for further analysis, serving as the major data source. One-on-one interviews with selected students were then conducted to clarify issues related to the study and their experience in using the tool. The findings indicated that the pattern-based tool was efficient in helping students solve collocation problems. This paper concludes with some pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research.
To assess the Framingham risk score as a prognostic tool for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Medical records were reviewed for unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients between January 2010 and October 2017. The 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease was calculated. Patients were subdivided into groups: group 1 – Framingham risk score of less than 10 per cent (n = 28); group 2 – score of 10 to less than 20 per cent (n = 6); and group 3 – score of 20 per cent or higher (n = 5).
Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were not significantly associated (p = 0.32). Thirteen patients in group 1 recovered completely (46.4 per cent), but none in groups 2 and 3 showed complete recovery. Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were significantly associated in multivariable linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.36). The regression coefficient was 0.33 (p = 0.003) for initial pure tone average and −0.67 (p = 0.005) for Framingham risk score.
Framingham risk score may be useful in predicting outcomes for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients, as those with a higher score showed poorer hearing recovery.
Depression is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, it is one of the most common neuropsychiatric presentations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Common underlying neuropathological processes appear to exist between these conditions. Synaptic degeneration has been implicated in AD pathogenesis, while its role in depression is not well understood.
This study aims to investigate synaptic degeneration as a possible underlying mechanism for depression and whether antidepressants could alleviate the stated pathology.
Primary rodent hippocampal neurons treated with corticosterone were used as an in vitro model of depression. Toxicity of corticosterone was determined through the lactate dehydrogenase and caspase-3 activity assays. Immunocytochemical analysis of synaptic proteins was employed to investigate effects of corticosterone on synapses.
Neurotoxicity was observed in hippocampal neurons after treatment with corticosterone (10μM) for 24 hours. Aggregations of synaptotagmin and synaptophysin were observed 24 hours after treatment with corticosterone (10μM). Similar effects were observed after sub-lethal treatments with corticosterone (0.5μM and 1μM) for 48 and 72 hours. Pre-treatment for 1 hour with imipramine and escitalopram (20μM and 40μM for both agents) were able to alleviate these toxic effects.
These results suggest the involvement of synaptic degeneration in corticosterone-induced toxicity and that commonly used antidepressants are able to alleviate synaptic derangements. Taken together, synaptic degeneration could be a common pathway for neuronal demise occurring in AD and depression, which can be attenuated by antidepressant administration. Future research to elucidate the precise mechanism for the synaptic protective effect of antidepressants is warranted.
Recent studies suggest that the menopausal transition may constitute a period of greater risk for the development of new onset/recurrent depressive episodes. In addition, the presence of vasomotor and other menopause-related complaints may adversely affect quality of life and overall functioning. With the long-term safety of hormone therapies being questioned, non-hormonal strategies are needed for the management of symptomatic midlife women. This report is a preliminary analysis of a study investigating the effects of quetiapine extended-release (Seroquel XR) in symptomatic perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Peri and postmenopausal women, age 40 to 60 years, suffering from MDD and reporting menopause-related symptoms were recruited into a 2-week, placebo lead-in phase, followed by an open trial (8 weeks) with quetiapine extended-release, flexible dose, 150-300 mg/day. The primary outcome measure (i.e. changes in depressive symptoms) was assessed via Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores. Other measures included: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), menopause-related symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale - GCS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI-S), sleep characteristics (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI) and the impact of hot flashes on daily functioning (Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS).
Thirty-nine women (mean age 49.3±4.3 years) were enrolled in the placebo lead-in phase. Of those, 25 were considered eligible for the 8-week trial with quetiapine extended-release. This interim analysis (LOCF) included 18 women who completed 4 to 8 weeks of treatment with quetiapine extended-release (median MADRS total scores at baseline = 28 ±6.1; median final dose of quetiapine extended-release=200 mg/day). At the end of the study, 13 out of 18 (72.2%) participants achieved remission (total MADRS scores < 10). Overall, subjects showed significant reduction in total MADRS (p< 0.001) and HAM-D scores (p< 0.001). Treatment with quetiapine extended-release improved menopause-related symptoms, as shown by a decrease in Greene Climacteric Scale total scores (p< 0.001) and sub-scores for psychological (p< 0.001), vasomotor (p=0.001), and somatic (p=0.001) complaints (Wilcoxon tests). Quetiapine extended-release did affect menopause-related sexual dysfunction (changes in CGS sexual sub-scores, p=0.06). There was a substantial reduction in overall burden associated with vasomotor symptoms, i.e., decreased HFRDIS scores (p< 0.001). Lastly, sleep efficiency, perceived sleep quality, and daily sleep disturbances improved significantly after treatment with quetiapine extended-release (p< 0.001 for all PSQI sub-scores).
This is the first study examining the efficacy of Seroquel XR for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in a population of symptomatic peri and postmenopausal women. Treatment with Seroquel XR not only reduced depressive symptomatology but also improved vasomotor symptoms and sleep complaints. Larger randomized, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to better explore the efficacy and predictors of response with quetiapine extended-release for this specific population.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the mental health improvement programs in Korean firefighters through cooperation with the urban fire station. And we assessed the firefighter's degree of traumatic events and psychopathologies including depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and insomnia.
A mental health improvement program was provided to 502 firefighters working at Daegu, Gumi and Ulsan during 8-week period. The program included not only an evaluation and treatment of psychiatric symptoms through counseling but also a psychoeducation for mental health awareness. The validated Questionnaires to measure psychiatric symptoms were used; symptoms included depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts and insomnia. Subjects were divided to two groups; PTSD high-risk group and non-high risk group. Psychopathological levels were compared before and after the program.
PTSD high-risk group included 57 subjects (11.35%) and non-high risk group included 445 subjects (88.65%). Before the program, PTSD high-risk group showed higher depression, anxiety, insomnia scores statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis with PTSD high-risk group as a dependent variable showed depression as a factor for firefighters to become PTSD high-risk group compared to those not depressed. Insomnia turned out to be another variant. The program resulted in significant decrease total scores of BDI and ISI for PTSD high-risk group.
The results on this study showed that higher levels of depression and insomnia especially influenced the manifestation of PTSD in firefighters. The evaluation and management of psychopathologies including depression, insomnia with traumatic events for firefighters can be helpful.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Patients with subthreshold bipolar disorder (sub-BP) experience severe clinical courses and functional impairments, which are comparable to those with bipolar I and II disorders (BP-I and -II). Nevertheless, lifetime prevalence, socioeconomic correlates and diagnostic overlaps of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) have not yet been estimated in the general population of South Korean adults.
This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence, correlates and diagnostic comorbidities of BPS using a validated screening instrument in the nationwide general population of South Korea.
A total of 3013 adults among the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey (KECA-2011) completed face-to-face interviews using the Korean versions of the composite international diagnostic interview 2.1 and mood disorder questionnaire (K-CIDI and K-MDQ).
The lifetime prevalence of BPS in the South Korean adults was measured to be 4.3% (95% CI 2.6–6.9). Nearly 80% of the subjects with BPS were codiagnosed with other DSM-IV nonpsychotic mental disorders: 35.4% (95% CI 24.2–48.5) for major depression and dysthymic disorder, 35.1% (95% CI 27.7–43.3) for anxiety disorders and 51.9% (95% CI 40.5–63.1) for alcohol and nicotine use disorders. Younger age (18–34 years) was the only sociodemographic predictor of BPS positivity (P = 0.014) and the diagnostic overlap patterns were different between men and women.
Positivity for BPS was estimated to be much greater than the prevalence of DSM-IV BP in South Korea. Most of the respondents with BPS were diagnosed with other major mental disorders and this might be related with mis and/or underdiagnosis of clinically relevant Sub-BP.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Though sleep disturbances are common among psychiatric patients, some patients may trivialize their problem and not discuss it with their doctors. This study thus aimed to assess patient profile that is associated with help seeking for sleep problems among psychiatric patients.
Outpatients from a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study (n = 400). The pittsburgh sleep quality index was administered to identify cases of probable insomnia, and daytime impairment due to sleep disturbances was recorded. Participants were asked if they have ever consulted a doctor or any health professionals for their sleep problems. Sociodemographic information was recorded and clinical profile was obtained from the patient's medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine correlates of help-seeking behaviour among patients with probable insomnia.
275 cases of probable insomnia were identified. Among this group of patients, 38.9% had never sought help for their sleep problems. Participants who were single were less likely to seek help as compared to those who were widowed/separated/divorced (OR= 0.319, P = 0.023). Having a comorbid psychiatric condition was independently associated with increased odds of help seeking (OR= 1.952, P = 0.027). Participants who perceived greater daytime impairment due to sleep problems were more likely to seek help (OR= 1.465, P = 0.007).
The majority of psychiatry patients with sleep problems sought professional help, though there remained a substantial group that did not do so. There is a need to educate and create awareness of potential sleep problems among psychiatric patients, and to inform them of the availability of treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Simultaneous PET/MR/EEG (Positron Emission Tomography – Magnetic Resonance – Electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here within the framework of the European Union Project TRIMAGE. The trimodal, cost-effective PET/MR/EEG imaging tool makes use of cutting edge technology both in PET and in MR fields. A novel type of magnet (1.5T, non-cryogenic) has been built together with a PET scanner that makes use of the most advanced photodetectors (i.e., SiPM matrices), scintillators matrices (LYSO) and digital electronics. The combined PET/MR/EEG system is dedicated to brain imaging and has an inner diameter of 260 mm and an axial Field-of-View of 160 mm.
It enables the acquisition and assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. The dopaminergic system and the glutamatergic system in schizophrenic patients are investigated via PET, the same physiological/pathophysiological conditions with regard to functional connectivity, via fMRI, and its electrophysiological signature via EEG. In addition to basic neuroscience questions addressing neurovascular-metabolic coupling, this new methodology lays the foundation for individual physiological and pathological fingerprints for a wide research field addressing healthy aging, gender effects, plasticity and different psychiatric and neurological diseases.
The preliminary performances of two components of the imaging tool (PET and MR) are discussed. Initial results of the search of possible candidates for suitable schizophrenia biomarkers are also presented as obtained with PET/MR systems available to the collaboration.
This study used data from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States; N = 1,315) to investigate bidirectional associations between parental warmth and control, and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, the extent to which these associations held across mothers and fathers and across cultures with differing normative levels of parent warmth and control were examined. Mothers, fathers, and children completed measures when children were ages 8 to 13. Multiple-group autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that evocative child-driven effects of externalizing and internalizing behavior on warmth and control are ubiquitous across development, cultures, mothers, and fathers. Results also reveal that parenting effects on child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, though rarer than child effects, extend into adolescence when examined separately in mothers and fathers. Father-based parent effects were more frequent than mother effects. Most parent- and child-driven effects appear to emerge consistently across cultures. The rare culture-specific parenting effects suggested that occasionally the effects of parenting behaviors that run counter to cultural norms may be delayed in rendering their protective effect against deleterious child outcomes.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
Addition of multispecies impurity ions to the total-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGCa is reported, including a cross-verification of neoclassical physics against the NEO code. This new version of the neoclassical gyrokinetic code XGCa is used to benchmark and confirm the previous reduced-equation-based prediction that high-
impurity particles in the Pfirsch–Schlüter regime can exhibit a significant level of up–down poloidal asymmetry, through the large parallel friction force, and thus influence the radial plasma transport significantly. The study is performed in a plasma with weak toroidal rotation. In comparison, when the impurity particles are in the plateau regime, the up–down poloidal asymmetry becomes weak, with the parallel friction force becoming weaker than the parallel viscous force. It is also found that the linearization of the perturbed distribution function, based on the small poloidal asymmetry assumption, can become invalid. Using the numerical data from XGCa, each term in the parallel fluid force-balance equation have been analysed to find that both the main ions and the electrons respond to the poloidal potential variation adiabatically when the high-
tungsten possesses large poloidal variation.
Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
We present the second data release (DR2) of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia, using six optical filters: u, v, g, r, i, z. DR2 is the first release to go beyond the
) limit of the Shallow Survey released in the first data release (DR1), and includes portions of the sky at full survey depth that reach
mag in g and r filters. The DR2 photometry has a precision as measured by internal reproducibility of 1% in u and v, and 0.7% in griz. More than 21 000
have data in some filters (at either Shallow or Main Survey depth) and over 7 000
have deep Main Survey coverage in all six filters. Finally, about 18 000
have Main Survey data in i and z filters, albeit not yet at full depth. The release contains over 120 000 images, as well as catalogues with over 500 million unique astrophysical objects and nearly 5 billion individual detections. It also contains cross-matches with a range of external catalogues such as Gaia DR2, Pan-STARRS1 DR1, GALEX GUVcat, 2MASS, and AllWISE, as well as spectroscopic surveys such as 2MRS, GALAH, 6dFGS, and 2dFLenS.
Better understanding of interplay among symptoms, cognition and functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is crucial to promoting functional recovery. Network analysis is a promising data-driven approach to elucidating complex interactions among psychopathological variables in psychosis, but has not been applied in FEP.
This study employed network analysis to examine inter-relationships among a wide array of variables encompassing psychopathology, premorbid and onset characteristics, cognition, subjective quality-of-life and psychosocial functioning in 323 adult FEP patients in Hong Kong. Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) combined with extended Bayesian information criterion (BIC) model selection was used for network construction. Importance of individual nodes in a generated network was quantified by centrality analyses.
Our results showed that amotivation played the most central role and had the strongest associations with other variables in the network, as indexed by node strength. Amotivation and diminished expression displayed differential relationships with other nodes, supporting the validity of two-factor negative symptom structure. Psychosocial functioning was most strongly connected with amotivation and was weakly linked to several other variables. Within cognitive domain, digit span demonstrated the highest centrality and was connected with most of the other cognitive variables. Exploratory analysis revealed no significant gender differences in network structure and global strength.
Our results suggest the pivotal role of amotivation in psychopathology network of FEP and indicate its critical association with psychosocial functioning. Further research is required to verify the clinical significance of diminished motivation on functional outcome in the early course of psychotic illness.