To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The objective of this study was to examine associations between media contact and posttraumatic stress in a sample with a large number of individuals who were directly exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks and to compare outcomes in exposed and unexposed participants.
Structured interviews and questionnaires were administered to a volunteer sample of 254 employees of New York City businesses 35 months after the attacks to document disaster trauma exposures, posttraumatic stress outcomes, and media contact and reactions.
Media variables were not associated with psychopathological outcomes in exposed participants, but media contact in the first week after the attacks and feeling moderately/extremely bothered by graphic 9/11 media images were associated with re-experiencing symptoms in both the exposed and unexposed participants. Feeling moderately/extremely bothered by graphic media images was associated with hyperarousal symptoms in exposed participants.
The findings suggest that media contact did not lead to psychopathology in exposed individuals, although it was associated with normative distress in both exposure groups. Because of the potential for adverse effects associated with media contact, clinicians and public health professionals are encouraged to discuss concerns about mass trauma media contact with their patients and the public at large.
Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics.
This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course.
Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory.
The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.
For more than four decades after the introduction of cv. Italia (Vitis vinifera L.) in Brazil, several somatic mutations in the genome of cv. Italia and its somatic mutants gave rise to phenotypes which generated at least five new cultivars of fine table grapes. Since no molecular marker proved to be effective in discriminating cv. Italia (V. vinifera L.) and its coloured mutants (Rubi, Benitaka, Brasil, Black Star), primers for the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were developed to analyse Inter Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP), and investigate how the coloured cultivars derived from clonal propagations of somatic mutations are genetically structured. Primers for LTR sequences of IRAP and REMAP markers were edited from grape sequence databases available at a GenBank. Twenty-four primers, denominated DKS001–DKS024, were edited. Three hundred and forty-nine DNA segments were amplified by individual DKS primers and DKS/ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) primer combinations, at an average of 13.96 amplicons per primer pair. High genetic divergence between the five cultivars was inferred from polymorphism in retrotransposons IRAP and REMAP. The analysis of polymorphism of IRAP and REMAP retrotransposons was crucial to show that clonal propagation of somatic mutations may lead towards the formation of genetically divergent cultivars by the formation of genetically structured vineyards and show the mixture of genomes within each cultivar.
Understanding which characteristics of persons with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers are associated with unmet needs can inform strategies to address those needs. Our purpose was to determine the percentage of PWD having unmet needs and significant correlates of unmet needs in PWD.
Cross-sectional data were analyzed using bivariate and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses.
Participants lived in the greater Baltimore, Maryland and Washington DC suburban area.
A sample of 646 community-living PWD and their informal caregivers participated in an in-home assessment of dementia-related needs.
Unmet needs were identified using the Johns Hopkins Dementia Care Needs Assessment. Correlates of unmet needs were determined using demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, functional and quality of life characteristics of the PWD and their caregivers.
PWD had a mean of 10.6 (±4.8) unmet needs out of 43 items (24.8%). Unmet needs were most common in Home/Personal Safety (97.4%), General Health Care (83.1%), and Daily Activities (73.2%) domains. Higher unmet needs were significantly related to non-white race, lower education, higher cognitive function, more neuropsychiatric symptoms, lower quality of life in PWD, and having caregivers with lower education or who spent fewer hours/week with the PWD.
Unmet needs are common in community-living PWD, and most are non-medical. Home-based dementia care can identify and address PWD’s unmet needs by focusing on care recipients and caregivers to enable PWD to remain safely at home.
Parents are a primary support for children following disasters, even though they face numerous challenges in addressing the physical and social consequences of an event. Parents who are directly exposed to a disaster and those who develop psychiatric disorders post-event are likely to be especially challenged and may be limited in their ability to support their children. This Brief Report describes a pilot study of survivors of the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (New York USA) attacks who reported their own psychosocial consequences and the reactions of their children three years post-event.
The primary hypothesis of the study was that children’s September 11th reactions would be associated with their parents’ psychiatric status. Secondary hypotheses were that the children’s disaster reactions would be associated with direct exposure to the disaster in children and/or their parents, parent-child separation due to the disaster, and disaster-related school absence.
Approximately three years after the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, 116 parents recruited from disaster-affected or disaster-related organizations were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and queried about their children’s (188 youths, aged three to 17 years at the time of the attacks) posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavioral changes.
Almost one-half of the parents had a post-disaster psychiatric disorder, including major depression in 27% and disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 11%. More than three-fourths of the children had at least one disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptom, and more than one-half experienced at least one post-disaster behavior change. A minority of the children were reported to have increased school behavior problems or a decline in their grades. Key correlates of children’s disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and post-disaster behavior changes were parent-child separation due to the disaster and parental post-disaster psychiatric disorders.
Because parents provide primary caretaking and support for children post-disaster, addressing the needs of parents is critical to their ability to assist their children. Reducing parents’ symptoms should increase their emotional availability and enhance their ability to address the needs of their children. Given the challenges in providing disaster interventions directly to children, especially when resources are limited, addressing parent psychopathology and distress (even in the absence of focusing on children’s symptoms) may benefit children.
PfefferbaumB, SimicZ, NorthCS. Parent-Reported Child Reactions to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Attacks (New York USA) in Relation to Parent Post-Disaster Psychopathology Three Years After the Event. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):558–564.
To identify predictors of disagreement with antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback recommendations (PAFR) at a free-standing children’s hospital.
Retrospective cohort study of audits performed during the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) from March 30, 2015, to April 17, 2017.
The ASP included audits of antimicrobial use and communicated PAFR to the care team, with follow-up on adherence to recommendations. The primary outcome was disagreement with PAFR. Potential predictors for disagreement, including patient-level, antimicrobial, programmatic, and provider-level factors, were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models.
In total, 4,727 antimicrobial audits were performed during the study period; 1,323 PAFR (28%) and 187 recommendations (15%) were not followed due to disagreement. Providers were more likely to disagree with PAFR when the patient had a gastrointestinal infection (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99–15.21), febrile neutropenia (OR, 6.14; 95% CI, 2.08–18.12), skin or soft-tissue infections (OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.92–19.77), or had been admitted for 31–90 days at the time of the audit (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.36–3.18). The longer the duration since the attending provider had been trained (ie, the more years of experience), the more likely they were to disagree with PAFR recommendations (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04).
Evaluation of our program confirmed patient-level predictors of PAFR disagreement and identified additional programmatic and provider-level factors, including years of attending experience. Stewardship interventions focused on specific diagnoses and antimicrobials are unlikely to result in programmatic success unless these factors are also addressed.
Loess is widespread over Alaska, and its accumulation has traditionally been associated with glacial periods. Surprisingly, loess deposits securely dated to the last glacial period are rare in Alaska, and paleowind reconstructions for this time period are limited to inferences from dune orientations. We report a rare occurrence of loess deposits dating to the last glacial period, ~19 ka to ~12 ka, in the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Loess in this area is very coarse grained (abundant coarse silt), with decreases in particle size moving south of the Yukon River, implying that the drainage basin of this river was the main source. Geochemical data show, however, that the Tanana River valley to the south is also a likely distal source. The occurrence of last-glacial loess with sources to both the south and north is explained by both regional, synoptic-scale winds from the northeast and opposing katabatic winds that could have developed from expanded glaciers in both the Brooks Range to the north and the Alaska Range to the south. Based on a comparison with recent climate modeling for the last glacial period, seasonality of dust transport may also have played a role in bringing about contributions from both northern and southern sources.
Despite the frequency of disasters in Africa, almost nothing is known about ethnic affiliations in relation to psychopathology after such incidents. This study examined the mental health outcomes of members of 7 major ethnic groups exposed to the 1998 terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
Approximately 8 to 10 months after the disaster, 229 civilian employees, 99 locally engaged staff workers of the US State Department and the US Agency for International Development, and 64 workers of the Kenyan Red Cross Society (total N=392) were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Additional data were gathered on demographic characteristics, disaster exposures and injuries, and ethnic affiliations.
Disaster-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly less prevalent among members of the Kikuyu group (28%) and post-disaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among members of the Meru group (64%), compared with all others in the sample. Preexisting psychopathology and disaster injury were independently associated with bombing-related psychopathology.
Further study of disaster-related psychopathology in relation to African ethnic affiliations is needed to better understand these associations and to assist in planning resources and interventions for African disaster survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 360–365)
Debriefing, a controversial crisis intervention delivered in the early aftermath of a disaster, has not been well evaluated for use with children and adolescents. This report constitutes a review of the child debriefing evidence base.
A systematic search of selected bibliographic databases (EBM Reviews, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Ovid, PILOTS, PubMed, and PsycINFO) was conducted in the spring of 2014 using search terms related to psychological debriefing. The search was limited to English language sources and studies of youth, aged 0 to 18 years. No time limit was placed on date of publication. The search yielded 713 references. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to select publications describing scientific studies and clinical reports. Reference sections of these publications, and of other literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search, were used to locate additional materials. Review of these materials generated 187 publications for more thorough examination; this assessment yielded a total of 91 references on debriefing in children and adolescents. Only 15 publications on debriefing in children and adolescents described empirical studies. Due to a lack of statistical analysis of effectiveness data with youth, and some articles describing the same study, only seven empirical studies described in nine papers were identified for analysis for this review. These studies were evaluated using criteria for assessment of methodological rigor in debriefing studies.
Children and adolescents included in the seven empirical debriefing studies were survivors of motor-vehicle accidents, a maritime disaster, hostage taking, war, or peer suicides. The nine papers describing the seven studies were characterized by inconsistency in describing the interventions and populations and by a lack of information on intervention fidelity. Few of the studies used randomized design or blinded assessment. The results described in the reviewed studies were mixed in regard to debriefing’s effect on posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and other outcomes. Even in studies in which debriefing appeared promising, the research was compromised by potentially confounding interventions.
The results highlight the small empirical evidence base for drawing conclusions about the use of debriefing with children and adolescents, and they call for further dialogue regarding challenges in evaluating debriefing and other crisis interventions in children.
PfefferbaumB, JacobsAK, NitiémaP, EverlyGSJr.Child Debriefing: A Review of the Evidence Base. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):110.
This study examines the relationship of unmet dementia-related care needs of community-dwelling persons, and their caregivers (CGs), to measures of caregiver burden.
Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from participants in a dementia care coordination trial of community-residing persons with dementia (PWD) (n = 254) and their caregivers (n = 246). Participants were recruited from Northwest Baltimore, Maryland. The Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) was used to measure subjective caregiver burden. Objective burden was measured by estimating the total hours per week spent doing things for the PWD and/or how many hours CGs missed paid work in the prior month due to caregiving responsibilities. The Johns Hopkins Dementia Care Needs Assessment was used to identify unmet dementia-related care needs. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions examined the relationship of unmet needs, demographic, clinical, or functional characteristics with caregiver burden measures.
In adjusted multivariable models, patient neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver unmet emotional needs explained 22% of the variance in ZBI scores. In adjusted multivariable models, caregiver need for respite, patient functional dependency, and caregiver unmet specialty medical needs explained 26% of the variance in the hours per week spent caregiving. PWD's level of functional dependency was the sole correlate of missed time at work, explaining 11% of the variance.
Addressing potentially modifiable unmet caregiver needs may reduce subjective and objective caregiver burden.
Study partners for dementia research participants are vital to the research process, but little is known about their role, responsibilities, and experiences. Study partners are usually family members or friends – often the patient's informal caregiver – who are knowledgeable about and usually accompany the participant to study visits. This study examines researchers’ perspectives on the role of study partners in dementia research.
Qualitative data collection and analytic methods were used. Semi-structured individual interviews with principal investigators, study coordinators, and research nurses (i.e. researchers; n = 17) at two academic research sites were recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed to identify themes in the data.
According to researchers, study partners either make or help make research enrollment and post-enrollment decisions, serve as knowledgeable informants for the participants, manage the logistics that enable participants to comply with a study's protocol, and provide comfort and encouragement for the patient to engage in and complete a study. Researchers describe ideal qualities of study partners as being able to provide reliable information, being dependable and adherent to the protocol, and not expecting a benefit. They also report that study partners may face both practical and emotional challenges during research participation. However, researchers believe that study partners derive dementia-related education, caregiver support, and satisfaction from their involvement in research.
Investigators, potential study partners, and institutional review boards should be aware of study partners’ research responsibilities, challenges, and their interests as caregivers.
Geologic archives show that the Earth was dustier during the last glacial period. One model suggests that increased gustiness (stronger, more frequent winds) enhanced dustiness. We tested this at Loveland, Iowa, one of the thickest deposits of last-glacial-age (Peoria) loess in the world. Based on K/Rb and Ba/Rb, loess was derived not only from glaciogenic sources of the Missouri River, but also distal loess from non-glacial sources in Nebraska. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide the first detailed chronology of Peoria Loess at Loveland. Deposition began after ~ 27 ka and continued until ~ 17 ka. OSL ages also indicate that mass accumulation rates (MARs) of loess were not constant. MARs were highest and grain size was coarsest during the time of middle Peoria Loess accretion, ~ 23 ka, when ~ 10 m of loess accumulated in no more than ~ 2000 yr and possibly much less. The timing of coarsest grain size and highest MAR, indicating strongest winds, coincides with a summer-insolation minimum at high latitudes in North America and the maximum southward extent of the Laurentide ice sheet. These observations suggest that increased dustiness during the last glacial period was driven largely by enhanced gustiness, forced by a steepened meridional temperature gradient.
Many scholars and activists are interested in the potential for school-based childhood nutrition programs to positively impact the U.S. agri-food system. This paper explores efforts of a national K-12 school food collaborative to procure more sustainably grown and healthful food products. After a review of literature on transaction cost theory and school food procurement, the paper examines the potential of strategic partnerships in a value chain framework to meet procurement change goals. Results from a qualitative study of two participating school districts suggest that partnerships can offer potential solutions to recurring procurement barriers found in previous research.
Objective: Several studies have provided prevalence estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in broadly affected populations, although without sufficiently addressing qualifying exposures required for assessing PTSD and estimating its prevalence. A premise that people throughout the New York City area were exposed to the attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) towers and are thus at risk for developing PTSD has important implications for both prevalence estimates and service provision. This premise has not, however, been tested with respect to DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD. This study examined associations between geographic distance from the 9/11 attacks on the WTC and reported 9/11 trauma exposures, and the role of specific trauma exposures in the development of PTSD.
Methods: Approximately 3 years after the attacks, 379 surviving employees (102 with direct exposures, including 65 in the towers, and 277 with varied exposures) recruited from 8 affected organizations were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement and reassessed at 6 years. The estimated closest geographic distance from the WTC towers during the attacks and specific disaster exposures were compared with the development of 9/11–related PTSD as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.
Results: The direct exposure zone was largely concentrated within a radius of 0.1 mi and completely contained within 0.75 mi of the towers. PTSD symptom criteria at any time after the disaster were met by 35% of people directly exposed to danger, 20% of those exposed only through witnessed experiences, and 35% of those exposed only through a close associate’s direct exposure. Outside these exposure groups, few possible sources of exposure were evident among the few who were symptomatic, most of whom had preexisting psychiatric illness.
Conclusions: Exposures deserve careful consideration among widely affected populations after large terrorist attacks when conducting clinical assessments, estimating the magnitude of population PTSD burdens, and projecting needs for specific mental health interventions.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S205-S213)
β-Carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (CX) and α-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form retinol. The amount of retinol (vitamin A) formed from carotenoid-rich foods should depend chiefly on the bioavailability (absorption and circulation time in the body) of carotenoids from their major food sources and the selectivity and reactivity of carotene cleavage enzymes towards them. The objective of the present study was to estimate the apparent bioavailability of the major sources of provitamin A (AC, BC and CX) from the diet by comparing the concentrations of these carotenoids in blood to their dietary intakes. Dietary intakes were estimated by FFQ (three studies in this laboratory, n 86; apparent bioavailability calculated for six other studies, n 5738) or by food record (two studies in our laboratory, n 59; apparent bioavailability calculated for two other studies, n 54). Carotenoid concentrations were measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Apparent bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of concentration in the blood to carotenoid intake. Then apparent bioavailabilities for AC and CX were compared to BC. Eating comparable amounts of AC-, CX- and BC-rich foods resulted in 53 % greater AC (99 % CI 23, 83) and 725 % greater CX (99 % CI 535, 915) concentrations in the blood. This suggests that the apparent bioavailability of CX from typical diets is greater than that of BC. Thus, CX-rich foods might be better sources of vitamin A than expected.
Background: Approximately 25% of individuals with dementia live alone, yet little is known about the cognitive and functional factors that impact detection of impairment.
Methods: Subjects with dementia (n = 349) from a community study of dementia management were administered the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and were asked to rate their cognitive status. Each participant's knowledgeable informant (KI) was interviewed to provide information about the subject's mental health and levels of cognitive and functional impairment. Subjects with dementia living alone (n = 97, 27.8%) were compared to subjects living with others (n = 252, 72.2%) regarding functional impairment, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive functioning, and dementia recognition.
Results: While subjects with dementia living alone had significantly fewer ADL impairments (p < 0.0001) and less cognitive impairment (p < 0.0001) than subjects with dementia who were living with others, nearly half of subjects living alone had two or more IADL impairments. Both knowledgeable informants (p < 0.001) and primary care physicians (p < 0.009) were less likely to detect dementia in subjects living alone, while 77.3% of subjects with dementia living alone rated their cognitive abilities as “good” or “a little worse”. Subjects with dementia living alone and those living with others had similar rates of psychosis (p = 0.2792) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.2076).
Conclusions: Lack of awareness of cognitive impairment by individuals with dementia living alone as well as their knowledgeable informants and physicians, combined with frequent functional impairment and psychiatric symptoms, heightens risk for adverse outcomes. These findings underscore the need for increased targeted screening for dementia and functional impairment among older persons living alone.
This chapter explains the potential impact of disaster response on uniformed first responders, including police officers and firefighters. A minority of responders may continue to experience psychological distress following disaster response, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use, and other anxiety disorders. Trauma-exposed first responders are also at risk of developing other psychiatric symptoms and conditions such as depression, substance abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Degree and type of interaction with survivors and bereaved family members are linked to the level of distress among rescue workers. Peritraumatic reactions are shown to be strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. The participants receiving the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment showed a significantly greater decline in PTSD symptoms, with large effect sizes. Promising strategies for immediate management of acute stress disorders include the use of adrenaline-blocking medications and cognitive behaviorally informed antipanic interventions for peritraumatic distress.