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For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual breakfast frequency (self-report questionnaire) was assessed in 877 adolescents (43 % male, age 14·5 (sd 0·5) years old). PA was measured over 5 d (accelerometry, average counts/min; cpm). Associations between daily PA and breakfast frequency were assessed using linear regression adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. Effect modification by sex and associations with PA during the morning (06.00–12.00 hours) were explored. For boys, there were no significant associations between breakfast frequency and PA. For girls, less frequent breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower PA (cpm) during the morning (occasional v. frequent β − 6·1 (95 % CI − 11·1, − 1·1), P = 0·017) when adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. There were no associations between PA and breakfast consumption over the whole day; however, for girls, less frequent breakfast consumption may be associated with lower PA levels during the morning, suggesting that breakfast consumption should perhaps be taken into consideration when aiming to promote PA in adolescent girls.
One of the largest reported campylobacteriosis outbreaks in Canada occurred in June 2007 in British Columbia, associated with a mountain bike race that took place in muddy conditions. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and environmental samples were collected and tested. There were 537 racers included in the study and 225 racers (42%) reported diarrhoeal illness after the race. C. jejuni clinical isolates (n=14) were found to be identical by multi-locus sequence typing. Although univariate analysis suggested water consumption and mud exposure as significant risk factors, multivariate analysis revealed that on direct ingestion mud was significantly associated with illness (OR 4·08, 95% CI 2·03–8·21). Contaminated mud was thus the most likely source of Campylobacter infection. We identified other unpublished reports of outbreaks associated with bike races in rainy or muddy conditions; these underscore the importance of educating racers and raising public awareness of the risks of mud ingestion.
A learner brings to the classroom many characteristics which are relevant to predictions about his career as a language learner. These characteristics are the product of his membership of a community; he shares its language and its attitudes to, beliefs about, motivations for and traditions in, language learning in general, and in the learning of specific second languages. And he possesses particular features of personality as formed by his personal history of maturation and experience. I am concerned in this paper with the role of only two of these characteristics, both related to the community he belongs to: the nature of his mother tongue and any other languages known to him, and the beliefs current in his community, which he presumably shares, as to the nature, extent and probable success in the learning task which lies ahead of him.
Linguistic theory must be sufficiently rich and comprehensive to be able to account for the structure of the most complex or elaborate manifestation of language. In consequence any structurally less complex verbal behaviour is typically explained as a use of some ‘reduced’ or ‘simplified’ code or register. Many languages, if not all, are said to possess such reduced registers and it is said to be part of a native speaker's competence to be able to use such ‘reduced registers’ where appropriate. It is part of his total communicative competence to know when it is appropriate to use such registers. These reduced or simplified registers are associated with more or less well defined situations of language use or types of discourse. Telegraphese is obviously restricted by the medium of transmission as well as the restricted range of communicative functions it is used for, e.g. orders, reports and announcements of plans. Technical description in botanical and ornithological reference books have a purely referential function, while the so-called language of instructions has clearly restricted rhetorical functions.