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Any adequate normative theoretical account, or philosophy, of civil rights and liberties must accommodate, among other norms, those set out in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), the US Bill of Rights (1791), and the first twenty-one Articles of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948). Paradigm cases include rights to life, physical integrity, security, privacy, property, and a fair trial; and freedoms of religion, expression, movement, contract, and association or assembly.
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care ultrasound exam for undifferentiated shock in patients presenting to the emergency department.
Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and research meeting abstracts were searched from 1966 to June 2018 for relevant studies. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality, and meta-analysis was conducted to pool performance data of individual categories of shock.
A total of 5,097 non-duplicated studies were identified, of which 58 underwent full-text review; 4 were included for analysis. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was considered overall a low risk of bias. Pooled positive likelihood ratio values ranged from 8.25 (95% CI 3.29 to 20.69) for hypovolemic shock to 40.54 (95% CI 12.06 to 136.28) for obstructive shock. Pooled negative likelihood ratio values ranged from 0.13 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.48) for obstructive shock to 0.32 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.62) for mixed-etiology shock.
The rapid ultrasound for shock and hypotension (RUSH) exam performs better when used to rule in causes of shock, rather than to definitively exclude specific etiologies. The negative likelihood ratios of the exam by subtype suggest that it most accurately rules out obstructive shock.
This collection provides an intellectually rigorous and accessible overview of key topics in contemporary natural law jurisprudence, an influential yet frequently misunderstood branch of legal philosophy. It fills a gap in the existing literature by bringing together leading international experts on natural law theory to provide perspectives on some of the most pressing issues pertaining to the nature and moral foundations of law. Themes covered include the history of the natural law tradition, the natural law account of practical reason, normativity and ethics, natural law approaches to legal obligation and authority and constitutional law. Creating a dialogue between leading figures in natural law thought, the Companion is an ideal introduction to the main commitments of natural law jurisprudence, whilst also offering a concise summary of developments in current scholarship for more advanced readers.
Introduction: The nicotine–metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance.
Aims: To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance.
Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo (n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline (n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT).
Results: The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR (p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT (p = 0.004).
Conclusions: Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.
The heart failure epidemic predominantly affects older people, particularly those with concurrent co-morbid conditions and geriatric syndromes. Mortality and heath service utilization associated with heart failure are significant, and extend beyond the costs associated with acute care utilization. Over time, older people with heart failure experience a journey characterized by gradual functional decline, accelerated by unpredictable disease exacerbations, requiring greater support to remain in the community, and often ultimately leading to institutionalization. In this narrative review, we posit that the rate of functional decline and associated health care resource utilization can be attenuated by optimizing the management of heart failure and associated co-morbidities. However, to realize this objective, the manner in which care is delivered to frail older people with heart failure must be restructured, from the bedside to the level of the health care system, in order to optimally anticipate, diagnose and manage co-morbidities.