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Although comparative politics is conventionally seen as the study of politics across countries, the field has a longstanding and increasingly prominent tradition in national contexts; focusing on subnational units, institutions, actors and processes. This book offers the first comprehensive assessment of the substantive, theoretical, and methodological contributions. With empirical chapters from across the contemporary Global South, including India, Mexico, and China, as well as Russia, the contributors show how subnational research provides useful insights about substantive themes in political science, from regimes and representation, to states and security, to social and economic development. In addition to methodological chapters with specific guidance about best practices for doing subnational research, this volume also proposes a set of strategies for subnational research, assesses their strengths and weaknesses, and offers illustrative empirical applications.
There are multiple formal characterizations of the natural numbers available. Despite being inter-derivable, they plausibly codify different possible applications of the naturals – doing basic arithmetic, counting, and ordering – as well as different philosophical conceptions of those numbers: structuralist, cardinal, and ordinal. Some influential philosophers of mathematics have argued for a non-egalitarian attitude according to which one of those characterizations is ‘more basic’ or ‘more fundamental’ than the others. This paper addresses two related issues. First, we review some of these non-egalitarian arguments, lay out a laundry list of different, legitimate, notions of relative priority, and suggest that these arguments plausibly employ different such notions. Secondly, we argue that given a metaphysical-cum-epistemological gloss suggested by Frege's foundationalist epistemology, the ordinals are plausibly more basic than the cardinals. This is just one orientation to relative priority one could take, however. Ultimately, we subscribe to an egalitarian attitude towards these formal characterizations: they are, in some sense, equally ‘legitimate’.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between personality factors and age-related longitudinal cognitive performance, and explore interactions of stress-proneness with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4, a prevalent risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: A total of 510 neuropsychiatrically healthy residents of Maricopa County recruited through media ads (mean age 57.6±10.6 years; 70% women; mean education 15.8±2.4 years; 213 APOE ɛ4 carriers) had neuropsychological testing every 2 years (mean duration follow-up 9.1±4.4 years), and the complete Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised. Several tests were administered within each of the following cognitive domains: memory, executive skills, language, visuospatial skills, and general cognition. Primary effects on cognitive trajectories and APOE ɛ4 interactions were ascertained with quadratic models. Results: With personality factors treated as continuous variables, Neuroticism was associated with greater decline, and Conscientiousness associated with reduced decline consistently across tests in memory and executive domains. With personality factors trichotomized, the associations of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were again highly consistent across tests within memory and to a lesser degree executive domains. While age-related memory decline was greater in APOE ɛ4 carriers as a group than ɛ4 noncarriers, verbal memory decline was mitigated in ɛ4 carriers with higher Conscientiousness, and visuospatial perception and memory decline was mitigated in ɛ4 carriers with higher Openness. Conclusions: Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were associated with changes in longitudinal performances on tests sensitive to memory and executive skills. APOE interactions were less consistent. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that personality factors, particularly Neuroticism and Conscientiousness are associated with cognitive aging patterns. (JINS, 2016, 22, 765–776)
A new technique to realize quasi-elliptic bandpass filters with extreme close-in rejection is presented in this paper. The basic idea consists of embedding non-resonating mode waveguide cavities within the structure of an evanescent-mode filter. Such a combination of cavities and resonators allows the generation of very close transmission zeros while realizing at the same time relatively wide passbands and stopbands. Both H-plane TE201 mode and E-plane TM110 mode configurations are used as non-resonating mode waveguide cavities. In contrast with the other elliptic evanescent-mode filters using conventional approaches, the insertion loss degradation at the filter cut-off frequencies is minimized thanks to the high-Q factor of the waveguide cavities, whose corresponding poles are located right at the edges of the passband. The experimental results of an evanescent-mode filter having 9.950–11.000 GHz passband and providing more than 45 dB rejection between 11.040 and 11.050 GHz validate the proposed solution.
Organic wheat and small grains are produced on relatively few acres in the inland Pacific Northwest. The objective of this study was to examine how the nitrogen (N) dynamics of cropping systems (CSs) produced during the transition phase impacted organic wheat yield and protein levels in the first 2 years of certified organic production. Certified organic spring wheat (SW) was produced in 2006 and winter wheat (WW) in 2007 following nine, 3-year transitional cereal, small grain and legume-intensive CSs. SW and WW following perennial alfalfa + oat/pea forage or 3 years of legume green manure tended to be more productive than wheat that followed systems that contained a small grain crop for at least 1 year during the transition. In addition to increasing soil N, well-established stands of forage and green manure provided adequate cover to reduce weed establishment prior to organic production. Effective weed control strategies were as important as increasing soil inorganic N levels for improving organic wheat production. Choice of crop type, cultivar and rotation is important in organic wheat systems and in this study, WW had better stand establishment, competition with weeds and higher overall yield than SW and would be a better-suited class of wheat for organic production in situations where spring weeds are the dominant problem. Regardless of CS or crop type, supplemental soil fertility (primarily N) during the organic production phase will be necessary to maintain high soil N levels and wheat yields in these dryland systems.