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As the population ages, the proportion of older people requiring functional support will increase significantly, as will the ‘dependency ratio’ (the number of dependent people divided by the working-age population). These demographic changes will place significant strain on society and systems of long-term care (LTC). Growing expectations of standards of care will, in the future, amplify tensions between quality and affordability. Although there is significant international variation, the LTC system in many countries has become increasingly sophisticated, with services provided in both the home and residential LTC provision. The roles of informal carers and family are also being acknowledged as part of a complex system of care .
Our current global food system – from food production to consumption, including manufacture, packaging, transport, retail and associated businesses – is responsible for extensive negative social and environmental impacts which threaten the long-term well-being of society. This has led to increasing calls from science–policy organizations for major reform and transformation of the global food system. However, our knowledge regarding food system transformations is fragmented and this is hindering the development of co-ordinated solutions. Here, we collate recent research across several academic disciplines and sectors in order to better understand the mechanisms that ‘lock-in’ food systems in unsustainable states.
Alexis de Tocqueville is widely cited as an authority on civil society, religion and American political culture, yet his thoughts on democratization outside the West and the challenges of a globalizing age are less known and often misunderstood. This collection of essays by a distinguished group of international scholars explores Tocqueville's vision of democracy in Asia and the Middle East; the relationship between globalization and democracy; colonialism, Islam and Hinduism; and the ethics of international relations. Rather than simply documenting Tocqueville's own thoughts, the volume applies the Frenchman's insights to enduring dilemmas of democratization and cross-cultural exchanges in the twenty-first century. This is one of the few books to shift the focus of Tocqueville studies away from America and Western Europe, expanding the frontiers of democracy and highlighting the international dimensions of Tocqueville's political thought.
Arguably no figure in the modern world better personifies the agonies and ecstasies of empire than Napoleon Bonaparte. With his stunning military victories over the various coalitions of European powers; his liberalizing reforms of the Continental legal system; and his advocacy of religious toleration for Jews, Catholics, and Protestants, Bonaparte can plausibly be construed as the architect of a uniquely modern vision of empire that promised legal emancipation and civilization to all those falling under its power. Nonetheless, the emperor's insatiable lust for conquest and the devastation his military campaigns wrought on the peoples of Europe, Russia, and the Middle East cast him in a much less flattering light. His personal legacy is every bit as multivalent as the peculiar brand of imperialism he ushered onto the political stage in the nineteenth century.
What is even more confounding are the wildly disparate responses Bonaparte elicited from contemporaries – republicans, liberals, and monarchists alike. Among the emperor's many observers, Alexis de Tocqueville captures this ambivalence as well as any commentator in the first half of the nineteenth century. Tocqueville is usually cast alongside early nineteenth-century French liberals such as Benjamin Constant and Germaine de Staël as a trenchant critic of Bonaparte's despotic rule. There is undeniable truth to this characterization, as we will see, but in this chapter I want to complicate the standard view of Tocqueville as a whole-hearted critic of Bonapartism.