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Vitamins and minerals play an essential role within many cellular processes including energy production and metabolism. Biochemical changes and heightened metabolic demands lead to increases in the requirement for certain micronutrients alongside higher excretion of micronutrients through waste products, such as sweat and urine. Previously, supplementation with a multivitamin/mineral (MVM) for ≥ 28 days resulted in improvements to cognition and subjective state. Shifts in metabolism have also been demonstrated during cognitively demanding tasks following MVM in females, both acutely and following 8-week supplementation, suggesting that enhanced recovery is possible following MVM supplementation. The current study aimed to assess these effects further in males and females using metabolically challenging exercise and cognitive tasks.
Materials and Methods
This randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study investigated the effects of a MVM complex in 82 healthy young (18–35y) exercisers. Subjective ratings and substrate metabolism were assessed during 30 minutes each of increasingly effortful incremental exercise and demanding cognitive tasks. Assessments took place on acute study days following a single dose (Day 1) of MVM, containing 3 times recommended daily allowance of water-soluble vitamins plus CoQ10, and following 4-week supplementation (Day 28).
Energy expenditure (EE) was increased during cognitive tasks following MVM across Day 1 and Day 28, with greater effects in males. In males, MVM also increased carbohydrate oxidation and EE during exercise across Day 1 and Day 28. In females, mental tiredness was lower during exercise; increases in physical tiredness following 30 minutes of exercise were attenuated; and stress ratings following cognitive tasks were reduced following MVM. In males, MVM only lowered mental tiredness following 10 minutes of exercise. Those receiving MVM also reported lower ratings of perceived exertion following 10 minutes of exercise. These effects were apparent irrespective of day, but effects on mental tiredness were greater on Day 28. Ferritin levels were also higher on Day 28 in those receiving MVM.
These findings extend on existing knowledge, demonstrating increased carbohydrate oxidation and EE in males following MVM supplementation for the first time. Importantly, they show modulation of EE and subjective tiredness following a single dose, providing further evidence for acute effects of MVM. Differential effects in men and women suggest that whilst males expend more energy, females may conserve their energy but report lower tiredness instead, demonstrating that sex may play an important role in the effects of MVM on energy metabolism and should be considered in future research.
Language-specific maximal size restrictions on syllables have been defined using frames such as moraic structure. In General American English, a trimoraic syllable template makes largely successful predictions about contexts where tense/lax vowel contrasts are neutralised, but neutralisation preceding a coda rhotic has not been adequately explained. We attribute the apparent special properties of coda /ɹ/ to two characteristics of its representation, informed by our articulatory investigation: sequential coordination of dorsal and coronal subsegmental units and a high blending strength specification, corresponding to high coarticulatory dominance. Characteristics of coda laterals are compared. Our approach employs phonological representations where sequencing is encoded directly among subsegments, and coordination is sensitive to strength. Mora assignment is computed over sequencing of subsegments, predicting that complex segments may be bimoraic. The account brings phonotactics for rhymes with postvocalic liquids into line with the trimoraic template, and supports representing coordination and strength at the subsegmental level.
In early 2015, a patient from a cluster of cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia traveled to a rural village in Margibi County, potentially exposing numerous persons. The patient died in the village and post-mortem testing confirmed Ebola Virus infection.
The Margibi County Health Team (CHT; Kakata, Margibi, Liberia) needed to prevent further transmission of EVD within and outside of the affected villages, and they needed to better understand the factors that support or impede compliance with measures to stop the spread of EVD.
In February-March 2015, the Margibi CHT instituted a 21-day quarantine and active monitoring for two villages where the patient had contact with numerous residents, and a 21-day active monitoring for five other villages where the patient had possible contact with an unknown number of persons. One contact developed EVD and quarantine was extended an additional 12 days in one village. In April 2015, the Margibi CHT conducted a household-based EVD knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey of the seven villages. From April 24-29, 2015, interview teams approached every household in the seven villages and collected information on demographics, knowledge of EVD, attitudes about quarantine to prevent the spread of EVD, and their quarantine experiences and practices. Descriptive statistics were calculated.
One hundred fifteen interviews were conducted, representing the majority of the households in the seven villages. Most (99%) correctly identified touching an infected person’s body fluids and contact with the body of someone who has died from EVD as transmission routes. However, interviewees sometimes incorrectly identified mosquito bites (58%) and airborne spread (32%) as routes of EVD transmission, and 72% incorrectly identified the longest EVD incubation period as ≤seven days. Eight of 16 households in the two quarantined villages (50%) reported times when there was not enough water or food during quarantine. Nine of 16 (56%) reported that a household member had illnesses or injuries during quarantine; of these, all (100%) obtained care from a clinic, hospital, or Ebola treatment unit (ETU).
Residents’ knowledge of EVD transmission routes and incubation period were suboptimal. Public health authorities should consider assessing residents’ understanding of Ebola transmission routes and effectively educate them to ensure correct understanding. Quarantined residents should be provided with sufficient food, water, and access to medical care.
WilkenJA, PordellP, GoodeB, JartehR, MillerZ, SaygarBGSr., MaximoreL, BorborWM, CarmueM, WalkerGW, YeiahA. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Members of Households Actively Monitored or Quarantined to Prevent Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease — Margibi County, Liberia: February-March 2015. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):673–678.
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) involves the integration of developmental genetics, phylogenetics and morphology in order to understand how the diversity of life evolved. The origin of developmental processes and their subsequent modifications underlie the plasticity necessary to generate novel features and patterns, which in turn underpin species diversification. Interdisciplinary cohesion between systematic and developmental fields for the study of morphological evolution remains at best patchy. An integrated approach is necessary to understand the genetic basis of developmental traits and their evolutionary significance within a phylogenetic framework. The wealth of opportunity that NGS can provide for systematics and evo-devo offers a timely opportunity to further integrate these fields.
Here, we discuss how NGS can be utilized to address several aspects of plant biology, revolutionizing both the systematic study of species and the genetic basis of the developmental traits that they exhibit. We use the South African daisy Gorteria diffusa Thunb. (Asteraceae) to illustrate the potential of a systematic evo-devo approach to study petal spot development and also discuss the importance of considering homology when generating comparative sequence datasets, as well as related topics.
Integrating systematic and evo-devo studies using NGS
Evo-devo has much to offer systematics because it can provide developmental and functional contexts for traits whose homologies are difficult to assess on the basis of morphology. More fundamentally, it also provides a perspective for understanding evolutionary processes. Plant evo-devo should be a synthesis between developmental genetics, comparative morphology and phylogenetic systematics (Hawkins 2002). Such a synthesis of fields can provide a deeper understanding of traits, illuminating the genetic basis of development and morphology within an evolutionary framework. The data to reconstruct phylogenies have never been more readily available and will become increasingly so with the continuing development of NGS technologies.
However, in practical terms, systematic and developmental fields have not been widely integrated, particularly with regard to the use of phylogenetic estimates for evo-devo studies, which, by definition, should incorporate a phylogenetic context to address the formation and modification of developmental processes and networks. Phylogenetic systematics and comparative morphology provide an optimal basis for sampling strategies and the design of developmental genetic studies. Both broad sampling and rigorous testing of a phylogenetic framework are essential to identify gene sequence homology and reconstruct ancestral states.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Eradication of introduced species is often necessary to conserve native biota on islands. Seven wild turkeys Meleagris gallopavo were introduced to Santa Cruz Island, California, in 1975 and the population began to irrupt in the early 2000s. Turkeys posed a variety of threats to native species, including that they could replace the previously eradicated population of feral pigs Sus scrofa as a prey subsidy for golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos, which through incidental predation had driven three subspecies of island fox Urocyon littoralis to near extinction. We implemented a four-phase programme to eradicate the turkey population, based on general principles for eradication efforts. For example, we focused on preventing individual turkeys from becoming aware of our methods, which increased the likelihood we would be able to detect and dispatch all of the birds. Leveraging the tendency of turkeys to aggregate during winter, we used baited drop nets, precision shooting, and monitoring of surgically sterilized, radio-telemetered ‘Judas turkeys’ to eliminate the population. We estimate the population comprised 310 individuals when the project began in 2006 and that the last bird died in December 2012. Methods used in this project could be applied to other alien bird eradication programmes, of which there are few examples in the scientific literature.
In the dominant “climate change” imaginary, this phenomenon is distant and abstracted from our experiences of weather and the environment in the privileged West. Moreover, climate change discourse is saturated mostly in either neoliberal progress narratives of controlling the future or sustainability narratives of saving the past. Both largely obfuscate our implication therein. This paper proposes a different climate change imaginary. We draw on feminist new materialist theories—in particular those of Stacy Alaimo, Claire Colebrook, and Karen Barad—to describe our relationship to climate change as one of “weathering.” We propose the temporal frame of “thick time”—a transcorporeal stretching between present, future, and past—in order to reimagine our bodies as archives of climate and as making future climates possible. In doing so, we can rethink the temporal narratives of climate change discourse and develop a feminist ethos of responsivity toward climatic phenomena. This project reminds us that we are not masters of the climate, nor are we just spatially “in” it. As weather‐bodies, we are thick with climatic intra‐actions; we are makers of climate‐time. Together we are weathering the world.
The number of people employed in international humanitarian care is growing at a yearly rate of 6%. The demand for better coordination, accountability, and training has led to a need for standardized humanitarian training programs for providers. Training should be based on comprehensive core competencies that providers must demonstrate in addition to their skill-specific competencies. This report explores the competencies specific to humanitarian training that are practice- and application-oriented, teachable, and measurable. Competency-based, standardized programs will be used to select humanitarian workers deployed in future crises and to guide the professionalization of this discipline.
This chapter reviews what has been accomplished in this book and looks ahead to issues that remain to be resolved. This first section consolidates the leading results of the research in this work. In the next section, I identify topics that need attention in the future in order to make further progress.
As discussed in chapter 1, this work revolves largely around two themes: (1) how word position affects the way in which vowels function in sound patterns, and (2) how aspects of the perception and production of speech affect vowel patterns. Bearing on these issues, a fundamental insight this work brings to the understanding of vowel phenomena is that diverse systems in numerous languages serve to prevent the expression of distinctive phonological content solely in a weak position. Further, these patterns are hypothesized to have functional underpinnings such that they serve in large part to reduce perceptual difficulty in language.
The formal approach advanced in this work posits licensing constraints as the imperative that is the common factor for the vowel phenomena under study. These licensing constraints are cast as markedness constraints. Effects that involve licensing by a prominent position are united under the umbrella of a generalized prominence-based licensing constraint schema. This schema is such that prominence-based licensing constraints can be satisfied by multiple configurations for the restricted element: identity licensing, indirect licensing, direct licensing, and absence of the element, with the solution being determined by the interaction with other constraints in the grammar of language.
This chapter deals with vowel patterns that include identity licensing configurations. Like indirect licensing, such configurations cause a vowel quality in a non-prominent position to also be produced in a prominent position. Unlike patterns with indirect licensing alone, these systems can manifest non-local interactions, where a licensed feature is absent during segments that intervene between the vowel that displays the feature in the licensing position and a vowel that displays the feature in a non-licensing position. Patterns that involve identity licensing can thus be signaled by transparency effects. As discussed in chapter 4, these systems could be expected to include indirect licensing in forms where transparency effects are not applicable. With respect to the vowel whose quality controls assimilation, systems with identity licensing are expected to show similar effects to ones that display only indirect licensing. Patterns where the vowel in licensing position is in control are anticipated to exist by virtue of the strength of this position. Where the controlling vowel is in a non-licensing position, that position is itself expected to be strong in some aspect or an independent factor is expected to be responsible for the vowel's control.
In an identity licensing structure, a vowel quality in a non-prominent position is licensed by a duplicate of the feature in a prominent position. Aspects of the formal approach to these systems are highlighted in what follows. They are characterized by the core ranking in (1).
This chapter discusses vowel patterns that involve indirect licensing. According to the hypothesized functional underpinnings for these systems, indirect licensing serves to reduce perceptual difficulty by causing a vowel quality to be produced both in a prominent position and an adjacent non-prominent position or sequence of non-prominent positions. Where a feature subject to licensing is restricted to a particular value or context, that material is expected to have the capacity to serve as marked. Because the licensing position is prominent, patterns are anticipated to occur where the shared vowel quality issues from this site. In patterns where the shared property originates in a vowel external to the licensing position, it is expected either that this vowel occurs in a position serving as another locus of strength in the word or that some independent factor prevents it from capitulating to the original value of the licensing position. This chapter concentrates on patterns with indirect licensing that do not also present identity licensing, that is, it excludes cases where a given vowel quality is produced in prominent position and a non-adjacent non-prominent position through feature duplication. Characteristics that may be indicative of an indirect licensing pattern are the existence of blocking effects and licensing-driven assimilation that can cause more than one vowel to undergo harmony.
This chapter turns to vowel patterns beyond those driven by prominence-based licensing. Under focus are unbounded harmony systems that involve a trigger that is weak or presents marked structure in some respect. Unlike harmony driven by prominence-based licensing, these patterns do not single out a prominent position as their final target. Instead, they are unbounded, producing assimilation as far as can be achieved while respecting other constraints that may prevent certain vowels from participating. They therefore serve to reduce perceptual difficulty for a vowel property by causing it to be realized in as many syllables as possible.
The proposal pursued in this chapter is that the unbounded systems under study are driven by maximal licensing constraints (building on Kaun 1995, 2004; Walker 2005; Jiménez and Lloret 2007). These constraints assign violations to every vowel (or segment) to which a chain for a given feature in a representation is not associated. They consequently drive harmony that propagates to the maximal extent.
Some differences between vowel harmony driven by prominence-based licensing versus maximal licensing are illustrated in (1). For the prominence-based cases, the stressed syllable serves as the strong licensing position for a feature specification [αF]. The illustrations for prominence-based licensing in (1a) depict some possible scenarios involving weak post-tonic syllables. Either harmony operates from a post-tonic syllable to the stressed syllable or the stressed syllable triggers harmony in post-tonic syllables, as shown in (1ai).
This chapter considers the description and analysis of several prominence-based licensing patterns that involve strictly direct licensing. The solution that direct licensing offers to minimize perceptual difficulty for restricted elements is to realize them only in a prominent licensing position and prevent their appearance elsewhere. This is the key respect in which it differs from indirect and identity licensing, where the material subject to licensing is expressed in both the licensing position and a non-licensing position. Many of the patterns under study in this chapter preserve restricted feature specifications when they arise in a prominent licensing context and eliminate them elsewhere. This is what is expected if faithfulness is enforced for the strong position that serves as the licensor. In other patterns, the features in question, or segments that bear those features, migrate to the licensing position. Here it is expected that some other factor can be identified that is responsible for preserving the material subject to licensing.
From a formal standpoint, a common thread that runs through patterns that show solely direct licensing is the containment of feature chains that are subject to licensing entirely within the licensing position, entailing satisfaction of CrispEdge([F], σ). This constraint thus plays an essential role in the majority of analyses in this chapter. The core ranking structure for systems with direct licensing alone is given in (1). The higher stratum contains the licensing constraint, the crisp edge constraint, and the constraint that prohibits feature duplication.