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New cryogenic characterization techniques for exploring the nanoscale structure and chemistry of intact solid–liquid interfaces have recently been developed. These techniques provide high-resolution information about buried interfaces from large samples or devices that cannot be obtained by other means. These advancements were enabled by the development of instrumentation for cryogenic focused ion beam liftout, which allows intact solid–liquid interfaces to be extracted from large samples and thinned to electron-transparent thicknesses for characterization by cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy or atom probe tomography. Future implementation of these techniques will complement current strides in imaging of materials in fluid environments by in situ liquid-phase electron microscopy, providing a more complete understanding of the morphology, surface chemistry, and dynamic processes that occur at solid–liquid interfaces.
Distinguishing a disorder of persistent and impairing grief from normative grief allows clinicians to identify this often undetected and disabling condition. As four diagnostic criteria sets for a grief disorder have been proposed, their similarities and differences need to be elucidated.
Participants were family members bereaved by US military service death (N = 1732). We conducted analyses to assess the accuracy of each criteria set in identifying threshold cases (participants who endorsed baseline Inventory of Complicated Grief ⩾30 and Work and Social Adjustment Scale ⩾20) and excluding those below this threshold. We also calculated agreement among criteria sets by varying numbers of required associated symptoms.
All four criteria sets accurately excluded participants below our identified clinical threshold (i.e. correctly excluding 86–96% of those subthreshold), but they varied in identification of threshold cases (i.e. correctly identifying 47–82%). When the number of associated symptoms was held constant, criteria sets performed similarly. Accurate case identification was optimized when one or two associated symptoms were required. When employing optimized symptom numbers, pairwise agreements among criteria became correspondingly ‘very good’ (κ = 0.86–0.96).
The four proposed criteria sets describe a similar condition of persistent and impairing grief, but differ primarily in criteria restrictiveness. Diagnostic guidance for prolonged grief disorder in International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) functions well, whereas the criteria put forth in Section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) are unnecessarily restrictive.
Macroscale “continuum” level predictions are made by a new way to construct computationally efficient “wrappers” around fine-scale, microscopic, detailed descriptions of dynamical systems, such as molecular dynamics. It is often significantly easier to code a microscale simulator with periodicity: so the challenge addressed here is to develop a scheme that uses only a given periodic microscale simulator; specifically, one for atomistic dynamics. Numerical simulations show that applying a suitable proportional controller within “action regions” of a patch of atomistic simulation effectively predicts the macroscale transport of heat. Theoretical analysis establishes that such an approach will generally be effective and efficient, and also determines good values for the strength of the proportional controller. This work has the potential to empower systematic analysis and understanding at a macroscopic system level when only a given microscale simulator is available.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
The integration of behavioral health services into primary care has led to enhanced use of brief screening measures to identify mental health problems. Although useful, such instruments are largely symptom based and diagnosis specific. This narrow focus can potentially limit the identification of broader social or relational distress in patients that affect medical outcomes, as well as present feasibility challenges using a multi-measure approach in identifying mental health comorbidities.
This exploratory study of adult primary care patients compared an ultra-brief, and widely used measure of global distress across life functioning, the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS), with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 and PHQ-2).
Correlations between the ORS and the PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 indicated agreement between the measures in classifying patients, and the ORS identified significantly more patients in the clinical range.
Although results are preliminary, the ORS may cast a wider net in identifying patients with significant distress in primary care.
Thin films of zirconium oxide (ZrOx) and hafnium oxide (HfOx) were rf sputtered onto fused silica substrates in an oxygen rich argon environment. Pure zirconium and hafnium targets were used, and the oxygen partial pressure was varied to control the oxygen stoichiometry. Measurement of the EPR characteristics of the ZrOx films indicated two peaks corresponding to two orientations of the magnetic field. This anisotropic response suggested the films were polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. This was confirmed by XRD pole figures. The measured g-values for the ZrOx films were less than the free-spin g-value, indicating the defects corresponded to electron traps. It was further shown that the lower the oxygen partial pressure during deposition, the larger the EPR response, strongly suggesting the traps correspond to oxygen vacancies in ZrOx. Hafnium oxide thin films were also characterized by EPR. The EPR measurements indicated the presence of a single resonance peak, suggesting these films were polycrystalline without a preferred orientation or amorphous. XRD measurements confirmed that the HfOx films were amorphous. The g-value for these films was greater than that the free-spin value, indicating the presence of possibly self-trapped oxygen hole centers. These results will be discussed in the context of prior experimental and theoretical work on these systems.