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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
In this work, we study the hard-magnetic properties and its influence on the microstructure of MnBi-based glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky process, as well as their magnetic and thermal dependence in the range of 200 K-360 K. We obtained glass-coated microwires pieces trough of the Taylor-Ulitovsky process. Glass-coated microwires exhibited the formation of Low-Temperature Intermetallic Phase (LTIP)-MnBi, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental chemical composition analysis showed LTIP regions interspersed within Bi- and Mn-rich areas. Magnetic properties were determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for which a considerable intrinsic coercivity field (iHc) up to 6000 Oe at 360 K, together with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 57.49 emu/cm3. Therefore, this combination of properties renders LTIP is a promising precursor with potential for applications at high temperatures.
Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn). After a 4-week preliminary period, cows were assigned to one of four topdress treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) NRC inorganic (NRC levels using inorganic (sulfate-based) trace mineral supplements only); (2) NRC organic (NRC levels using organic trace mineral supplements (metals chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-(methythio)-butanoic acid); (3) commercial inorganic (approximately 2×NRC levels using inorganic trace mineral supplements only; and (4) commercial organic (commercial levels using organic trace mineral supplements only). Cows were fed the respective mineral treatments for 6 weeks. Treatment effects were level, source and their interaction. Activities of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte lysate and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma were measured as indices of oxidative metabolism. Effects of treatment on those indices were not significant when evaluated across the entire experimental period. Plasma immunoglobulin G level was higher in cows supplemented with organic trace minerals over the entire treatment period; responses assessed as differences of before and after Escherichia coli J5 bacterin vaccination at the end of week 2 of treatment period were not significant. Cows were administered an intramammary LPS challenge during week 5; during week 6 cows fed commercial levels of Zn, Cu and Mn tended to have higher plasma TAC and cows fed organic sources had decreased plasma TBARS. After the LPS challenge, the extent and pattern of response of plasma cortisol concentrations and clinical indices (rectal temperature and heart rate) were not affected by trace mineral level and source. Productive performance including dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were not affected by treatment. Overall, results suggest that the varying level and source of dietary trace minerals do not have significant short-term effects on oxidative metabolism indices and clinical responses to intramammary LPS challenge in midlactation cows.
To assess counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults with or without long-term exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke.
Twenty-two patients with and 22 patients without exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke participated in the study. After endoscopic polypectomy, the fragments of the nasal polyps were analysed by immunohistochemistry.
Compared to patients with no exposure, patients with exposure showed higher counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (t-test, p < 0.05). However, in patients with no exposure, multivariate analysis showed gender dimorphism, with lower counts in males than in females, and no influence from other variables (analysis of covariance, p > 0.05).
Exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke may induce increased counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults, with lower counts in males than females without exposure to tobacco smoke.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus and Universidad Central del Caribe, through the Title V Cooperative Project, devised a clinical and translational research (CTR) platform to pipeline students/faculty of undergraduate health sciences programs into CTR. Educational interventions in CTR—introductory intervention (II) and Annual Symposium (AS)—were designed to promote awareness, stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the II the participants (n=159) were surveyed before and after a presentation and panel discussion about CTR. In addition, after the sessions—plenary, panel, and workshop—about CTR, the participants of AS (n=42) were surveyed for satisfaction and learning experience in CTR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most participants of the II, 134 (84.3%) were students. In total, 58 (58, 36.5%) completed the post II survey. Of these, 53.4% satisfactorily defined the CTR concept Versus only 31.0% that could define CTR in the pre survey, 47 (81.7%) were unable to identify a CTR researcher and 45 (78.3 %) expressed interest in learning about CTR. In total, 28 (28, 66.7%) participants of the AS completed the satisfaction survey, out of which 17 (60.6%) were students. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that the AS served as a vehicle to increase their knowledge in CTR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The educational interventions demonstrated to be an effective strategy to promote awareness and stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. In addition, the results obtained, provided valuable baseline information for the planning—development of training cycles in CTR.
While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder.
The Argentinean Study of Mental Health Epidemiology (EAESM) is a multistage probability sample representative of adults (aged 18+) living in large urban areas of Argentina. A total of 2116 participants were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnosis, treatment contact and delay.
Projections of cases that will make treatment contact by 50 years taken from a survival curve suggest that the majority of individuals with a mood (100%) or anxiety disorder (72.5%) in Argentina whose disorder persist for a sufficient period of time eventually make treatment contact while fewer with a substance disorder do so (41.6%). Timely treatment in the year of onset is rare (2.6% for a substance disorder, 14.6% for an anxiety disorder and 31.3% of those with a mood disorder) with mean delays between 8 years for mood disorders and 21 years for anxiety disorders. Younger cohorts are more likely to make treatment contact than older cohorts, whereas those with earlier ages of disorder onset are least likely to make treatment contact. Those with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder are more likely to make treatment contact when they have comorbid disorders, whereas those with substance use disorders are less likely.
Argentina needs to implement strategies to get individuals with substance use disorders into treatment, and to reduce treatment delays for all, but particularly to target early detection and treatment among children and adolescents.
A method for monitoring the reproductive status of female pigs, using non–invasive hormone analysis was developed. Plasma and saliva samples were collected from five reproductively active sows, and analysed for oestradiol–17ß and progesterone by immunoassay. The oestradiol–17ß content of the saliva samples was also measured using a novel biosensor–based method to demonstrate, in principle, the potential to develop an automated system for hormone analysis and interpretation. A hand–held saliva sampling device was designed and built for the purpose of this experiment. Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 3.5 months from four of the five sows. The vascular access port implanted into the fifth sow failed; therefore she could only be used for saliva collection. Saliva sampling was 100% successful for the first two weeks of the study. Over the entire sampling period, daily and twice weekly samples could be collected on 86% of the attempts made. Both progesterone and oestradiol–17ß were measured in saliva samples using conventional immunoassay techniques.
A 1.1-m reflectarray antenna has been designed, manufactured, and tested to fulfill the requirements of a satellite antenna in Ku-band that provides South-American coverage in Tx and Rx. The reflectarray cells consist of four dipoles for each polarization in two dielectric layers, selected because of their simplicity and high performance. The dipole dimensions are optimized in all the reflectarray cells to accomplish the prescribed radiation patterns, by iteratively calling an analysis routine based on method of moments in spectral domain and local periodicity. The measured radiation patterns of the manufactured antenna have been satisfactorily compared with simulations and with a three-layer reflectarray previously designed, manufactured, and tested for the same mission.
In the present investigation, AA7075-T6 alloys and AZ31B-H24 were joined by the FSW process using the following range of parameters: rotational speed between 200 and 800 rpm, welding speed from 30 to 60 mm/min and a tilt angle from 1° to 3°. In some cases, a tool offset of 1 mm was used into Mg-based alloy. The experimental results show that sound and good joints can be obtained by positioning the tool in the middle of the joint-line using a rotational speed of 200 rpm, a welding speed of 30 mm/min and a tool tilt angle of 1°. The hardness and ultimate tensile strength in the stir zone were 122 Hv and 61.35 MPa, respectively. Also, it is important to mention that the Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallics compounds were observed in the this zone besides some defects like cavities and tunnel.
Two metal fillers with TiC nanoparticles (TiC NPs) of less than 100 nm for the overlay process is an alternative to hardfacing for treating surfaces subjected to severe wear. In this work, the effect of tribological behavior for TiC NPs addition on two Co-based filler materials, as well as the dilutions, was studied. Mixtures of Co-based filler metals without and with 0.5% and 2% TiC NPs were deposited onto D2 steel plates using PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc). The BET surface area was 0.17 m2 g-1 and 0.31 m2 g-1, respectively, for Stellite 6 and 12. The distribution of ca 23% macroporous for Stellite 6 was sufficient to get inside the TiC NPs, as well as in the case of Stellite 12, with a pore distribution of ca 13%. Stellite 12 has an increase in the dilutions (70%) and enthalpies showed endothermic reactions. Stellite 6 with NPs was determined to be most effective in increasing the wear resistance.
The construction of roads and other large-scale infrastructure projects, and the secondary impacts they precipitate, are among the key drivers of change in tropical forests. The proposed expansion of a road in the buffer zones of Peru's Manu National Park and Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, in the country's Amazon region, threatens biodiversity and indigenous communities in one of the world's most species-rich and environmentally sensitive rainforest areas. In particular, road expansion is likely to result in uncontrolled colonization, deforestation, and the illicit extraction of timber and other natural resources, as well as an increase in social conflict between resource extractors and indigenous communities. Furthermore, the development of infrastructure in the Manu region puts at risk Peru's international commitments regarding climate change by promoting, rather than avoiding, forest loss. A number of viable alternatives to further road expansion are available to achieve economic development and improved mobility in Manu, including agricultural intensification, improved land-use planning, and a less invasive transportation infrastructure. Given the growth in the global road network expected in the coming decades, as well as the common factors underlying the expansion of such infrastructure across tropical, developing countries, the issues surrounding road expansion in Manu and the compromise solutions that we propose are broadly applicable to efforts to achieve sustainable development in other remote, tropical regions.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are involved in many biological functions influencing infant health. Although HMO act locally at the intestine, recent evidence has demonstrated that HMO are partially incorporated into the systemic circulation of breast-fed infants. In the last few years, a large amount of research has been conducted using preclinical models to uncover new biological functions of HMO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption and urine excretion of HMO in rats. We administered a single oral dose of the following HMO: 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 6'-sialyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose at different concentrations to adult rats. The time course of absorption of HMO into the bloodstream and their appearance in urine was studied. Our results showed that rats, similar to human infants, are able to effectively absorb a portion of HMO from the intestine into plasma and to excrete them in urine. On the basis of this, we also conducted a specific kinetic absorption study with 2'-FL, the most predominant HMO in human milk, in 9–11-d-old rat pups. Our results confirmed that a significant amount of 2'-FL was absorbed into the systemic circulation and subsequently excreted in urine during lactation in rats in a dose-depended manner. We also found basal levels of these HMO in plasma and urine of adult rats as well as rat pups as a natural result of nursing. Our data suggest that the rat may be a useful preclinical model that provides new insights into the metabolism and functions of HMO.
Recent evidence suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet could be associated with prostate cancer (PC) risk. To evaluate the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and PC risk as well as aggressiveness, we conducted a case–control study in Mexico City. Cases were 394 individuals with incident, histologically confirmed PC, who were matched by age (±5 years) with 794 population controls. Dietary information was obtained through a semi-quantitative FFQ with a 3-year frame of reference before diagnosis, for cases, or interview, for controls. On the basis of twenty-eight food parameters, we estimated the energy-adjusted DII (E-DII). According to the Gleason score at diagnosis, PC cases were categorised as high (≥8), moderate (=7) and low (≤6) PC risk. Independent, unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate PC risk and PC aggressiveness. There were no significant associations between overall PC risk and E-DII (OR3rd v. 1st tertile 1·18; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·63; P=0·33) or among men with high-risk PC (Gleason≥8) (OR 1·46; 95 % CI 0·88, 2·42; P=0·14). These results do not support the hypothesis that a pro-inflammatory diet is related to PC risk and PC aggressiveness. However, further studies with larger sample sizes, with sufficient statistical power and of varying designs should be conducted to address this hypothesis.
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is an international group of scientists and clinicians with recognized expertise in meningococcal disease including microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, public health and vaccinology. The GMI was established to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease through education, research and international cooperation. The GMI held its second summit meeting in 2013 to discuss the different aspects of existing meningococcal immunization programmes and surveillance systems. Laboratory confirmation and characterization were identified as essential for informing evidence-based vaccine implementation decisions. The relative merits of different confirmatory methodologies and their applications in different resource settings were a key component of the discussions. This paper summarizes the salient issues discussed, with special emphasis on the recommendations made and any deficiencies that were identified.
We report preliminary results from high-resolution UV spectroscopy of the super star cluster 1 in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1705, using HST-stis. These new observations can help us to quantify accurately the stellar content in this super cluster. Together with high quality spectra from SMC stars and the evolutionary synthesis code starburst99, we estimate an age for this cluster of 12±3 Myr, in agreement with previous studies. The measured dynamical mass and the theoretical L/M ratio suggest a normal IMF down to the hydrogen-burning limit.
Multiwavelength and multitechnique observations towards NGC 6309 are presented. The data consist of λ3.6-cm continuum, ground- and space-based imaging, and high and low-dispersion longslit spectra. The structure of the central region seems to be a distorted, ring of 20″ in diameter. The lack of [N II] emission is conspicuous, as revealed by imaging and low dispersion spectra. Notably, the kinematics of the point-symmetric (PS) structures of NGC 6309 indicates the presence of lobes or cavities as those generally found in bipolar nebulae. The results lead to conclude that the origin of this peculiar morphology is not related to BRETs, but rather to that of a bipolar PN with PS structures in its lobes.
Long-slit optical spectroscopy and VLA-B radio continuum (λ = 3.6 cm) observations toward the compact planetary nebulae Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 are presented. Optical spectra were taken at different position angles (PAs) with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto (Spain), covering the range from 6549 to 6751 Å. The radio and optical data show that the ionized shell of Cn 3-1 is an ellipsoid (size ≃ 6″ × 5″, PA ≃ 72°) containing a bright ring-like equatorial zone (size ≃ 2″.6, expansion velocity ≃ 14 km s–1) and two bright point-symmetric arcs, extending from the equator towards the polar regions of the ellipsoid (Fig. 1). These arcs seem to be filamentary structures embedded in the ellipsoid. An ionized stellar wind has been detected through faint extended wings in the Hα (≃ 660 km s–1) and [N II] (≃ 460 km s–1) emission lines. M 3-27 is unresolved at 3.6 cm (size ≤ 0″6). The detected [N II] and [S II] emission lines arise in a compact (≤ 1″4) probably non-spherical region which is identified with the ionized shell of M 3-27. The Hα emission from M 3-27 is dominated by strong emission from an ionized stellar wind and exhibits a Type III P Cygni profile with very extended wings (≃ 3000 km s–1). The estimated kinematic age and ionized mass of Cn 3-1 (≃ 1300 yr, 4 × 10–2 M⊙) and M 3-27 (≤ 530 yr, ≃ 3 × 10–4 M⊙) indicate that both objects are young planetary nebulae. Extended halos (size ≃ 36″ in Cn 3-1, ≃ 24″ in M 3-27) have been spectroscopically detected in both objects. An analysis of the kinematic and emission properties shows that both halos are reflection nebulosities and suggests that the distribution of neutral material in them probably is largely isotropic. The results suggest that the halos correspond to isotropic mass ejections occurred in the last ≃ 2 × 104 yr of the AGB phase of the Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 progenitors.