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A theoretically based relationship for the Darcy–Weisbach friction factor
for rough-bed open-channel flows is derived and discussed. The derivation procedure is based on the double averaging (in time and space) of the Navier–Stokes equation followed by repeated integration across the flow. The obtained relationship explicitly shows that the friction factor can be split into at least five additive components, due to: (i) viscous stress; (ii) turbulent stress; (iii) dispersive stress (which in turn can be subdivided into two parts, due to bed roughness and secondary currents); (iv) flow unsteadiness and non-uniformity; and (v) spatial heterogeneity of fluid stresses in a bed-parallel plane. These constitutive components account for the roughness geometry effect and highlight the significance of the turbulent and dispersive stresses in the near-bed region where their values are largest. To explore the potential of the proposed relationship, an extensive data set has been assembled by employing specially designed large-eddy simulations and laboratory experiments for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Flows over self-affine rough boundaries, which are representative of natural and man-made surfaces, are considered. The data analysis focuses on the effects of roughness geometry (i.e. spectral slope in the bed elevation spectra), relative submergence of roughness elements and flow and roughness Reynolds numbers, all of which are found to be substantial. It is revealed that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the roughness-induced and secondary-currents-induced dispersive stresses may play significant roles in generating bed friction, complementing the dominant turbulent stress contribution.
Gut cell losses contribute to overall feed efficiency due to the energy requirement for cell replenishment. Intestinal epithelial cells are sloughed into the intestinal lumen as digesta passes through the gastrointestinal tract, where cells are degraded by endonucleases. This leads to fragmented DNA being present in faeces, which may be an indicator of gut cell loss. Therefore, measuring host faecal DNA content could have potential as a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss and result in a novel technique for the assessment of how different feed ingredients impact upon gut health. Faecal calprotectin (CALP) is a marker of intestinal inflammation. This was a pilot study designed to test a methodology for extracting and quantifying DNA from pig faeces, and to assess whether any differences in host faecal DNA and CALP could be detected. An additional aim was to determine whether any differences in the above measures were related to the pig performance response to dietary yeast-enriched protein concentrate (YPC). Newly weaned (∼26.5 days of age) Large White × Landrace × Pietrain piglets (8.37 kg ±1.10, n = 180) were assigned to one of four treatment groups (nine replicates of five pigs), differing in dietary YPC content: 0% (control), 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% (w/w). Pooled faecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of the 36-day trial. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and quantitative PCR was used to assess DNA composition. Pig genomic DNA was detected using primers specific for the pig cytochrome b (CYTB) gene, and bacterial DNA was detected using universal 16S primers. A pig CALP ELISA was used to assess gut inflammation. Dietary YPC significantly reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) from weaning to day 14 (P<0.001), but not from day 14 to day 28 (P = 0.220). Pig faecal CYTB DNA content was significantly (P = 0.008) reduced in YPC-treated pigs, with no effect of time, whereas total faecal bacterial DNA content was unaffected by diet or time (P>0.05). Faecal CALP levels were significantly higher at day 14 compared with day 28, but there was no effect of YPC inclusion and no relationship with FCR. In conclusion, YPC reduced faecal CYTB DNA content and this correlated positively with FCR, but was unrelated to gut inflammation, suggesting that it could be a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss. However, further validation experiments by an independent method are required to verify the origin of pig faecal CYTB DNA as being from sloughed intestinal epithelial cells.
We concentrate on the application of centimeter wavelength observational data to the coronae of rapidly rotating active dwarf stars. In particular we seek insight into coronal loop geometries, and their possible relevance to the magnetic braking mechanism, which must play a key role in binary evolution scenarios for such stars.
Observations over the past 20 yrs or so are reviewed, with emphasis on recent high spatial resolution observations. The results lend support to earlier ideas on the propagation of type III electron streams through coronal regions of weak magnetic field strength but have not as yet settled the question whether the electrons propagate along the axes of coronal streamers. Several important burst properties appear to be significantly affected by ray scattering on small-scale size density irregularities in the corona.
(Solar Phys.). On 1973 January 11, a flare near the west limb of the Sun caused a coronal disturbance which was observed with a unique variety of instruments. Radio observations of a type II and a moving type IV burst were obtained by the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics at Culgoora, Australia; white-light observations of a large, moving cloud were made by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory coronagraph on OSO-7; K-corona observations of a decrease in coronal density were made by the High Altitude Observatory at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and Hα observations of a flare spray were made by the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Haleakala (and also by H.A.O.).
(Astrophys. Letters). The measured amount of band-splitting, Δf, in the spectra of nine harmonic type II bursts is illustrated in Figure 1. Here, as in previous, smaller samples (Roberts, 1959; Maxwell and Thompson, 1962; Weiss, 1965) Δf is found to increase with frequency, f.
The past 3 years since the last solar maximum have witnessed an unprecedented number (>200) of published scientific papers on many aspects of solar radiophysics. These contributions are the result of an intense research effort mounted during the first Solar Maximum Mission of 1980 and continued until the present. Excellent x-ray, EUV, and visible light observations of the disturbed corona and transition region have been obtained from the SMM, Hinotori, P78-1, and ISEE-3 spacecraft. ISEE-3 also has provided very low-frequency radio observations of solar bursts in the interplanetary medium. Ground-based radio support for space experiments has been provided by many observatories throughout the world. In particular, many collaborative studies using x-ray and radio observations of solar flares have been reported. The outstanding radio instrument during this period has been the VLA, operating at 2, 6, and 20 cm with a time resolution of 10 s and both modes of circular polarization. The two-dimensional spatial resolution of the radio images is a few seconds of arc, almost as good as the best resolution obtained so far at any wavelength in the solar spectrum. To complement the rather poor time resolution of the VLA one-dimensional arrays such as the WSRT at 6 cm wavelength and the Nobeyama interferometer at 17 GHz have been used successfully. In addition, a number of very-high-time resolution radiometers have been built at different locations. At meter wavelengths two-dimensional arrays at Clark Lake, Culgoora, and Nancay and a one-dimensional array at Nobeyama have been employed. The little known region of the solar spectrum at decimeter wavelengths is being investigated by the Zurich spectrograph. It is pleasing to see Chinese participation in solar radiophysics.
A unique data set of 160 MHz solar noise storm positions and polarizations covering a complete sunspot cycle interval from the Skylab period of 1973 through the Solar Maximum intervals of 1980 and 1984 is presented in the form of 27.28-day synoptic plots.
The U-burst, first identified by Maxwell and Swarup and Haddock, is a type of solar radio event lasting ~ 10 s in which the frequency of the emission at first drifts rapidly downwards, then increases again. On the dynamic spectrum record the burst has the appearance of an inverted letter U.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
Crannell et al. (1978) have reported an observed correlation between the time profiles and flux densities of impulsive hard X-ray and microwave solar bursts. We report here on a significant correlation between the flux density of extended bursts of hard X-rays and micowaves. These extended events follow after impulsive bursts and last much longer (see e.g. Fig. 1, Frost and Dennis 1971). However, as extended bursts only occur during very large flares the number of cases available for study is small. The significance of our observations follows from the suggestion of Wild et al. (1963) that the extended bursts are evidence for a second-phase acceleration process in the corona. We show that the observed characteristics of these extended microwave bursts (viz. a rather flat spectrum below a turnover frequency which is independent of intensity) can be explained by gyro-synchrotron radiation from the same population of energetic (E ≈ 100 keV) electrons as those emitting (thin-target) X-ray bremsstrahlung. A detailed source model is discussed in a companion paper (Nelson and Stewart 1979 — Paper B).
In this paper we discuss 80 MHz heliograph observations of the multiple source structure and polarization of a type IV solar radio outburst on 1970 November 16. At times during the event six sources were present. Three of these were highly circularly polarized in a L.H. sense and two in a R.H. sense. The sixth source was extended and had oppositely polarized edges. From the source behaviour we conclude that the radio emission came from two expanding and one stationary magnetic arch.
Perhaps the most direct evidence to date for shock wave acceleration of electrons in the solar corona is provided by radio observations of Type II bursts containing herringbone structure (Roberts 1959). On spectral records the herringbones appear to resemble miniature forward and reverse drift Type III bursts extending above and below the Type II backbone.
Young supernova remnants are poorly understood and few are known. Further examples may be present, but unrecognised, within existing catalogues of radio sources. G274.68–2.84 was recently suggested as one such candidate but our new radio map from the Australia Telescope indicates that it is not a supernova remnant. Rather, it appears to be extragalactic with a strong, variable, flat-spectrum nucleus, and a bright X-ray counterpart.
The single G8V active chromosphere star HD36705 (AB Dor) was observed at 8.4 GHz with the Parkes 64 m telescope during three observing sessions involving a total of 21 days in the interval 1985 December to 1986 February. Subsequent photometric observations were made of the star with the 0.25 m and 0.45 m telescopes of the Monash Observatory in 1986 March-April. Two strong radio flares, each lasting three days, were detected; they yielded peak radio powers of P8.4≈4×109 W Hz-1, comparable with the microwave power emitted by the RS CVn binaries. Significant circular polarization of 13% left-hand was measured on only one of the six active days. The 8.4 GHz flux density showed smooth variation over an interval of several hours, consistent with the flare source being partly occulted by the stellar disk as the star rotated. When all the radio data was phase-binned using the known rotation period of 0.514 day we found two radio maxima corresponding to radio sources at stellar longitudes ~180° apart. The subsequent photometric data showed intensity variations that were consistent with the starspots at the same approximate longitudes. We thus interpret our radio curve as showing the presence of comparatively small (<0.5 D*) radio sources in the corona above the star spots. The upper limit to source diameter gives a peak brightness temperature ≥2×l010 K, which can be achieved by gyro-synchrotron emission only if the source is optically thick and the electrons, with average energy ~ 2 MeV, have a hard energy spectrum. The observed radiation can be due only to very high harmonics of the gyro-frequency, leading to an estimate for the magnetic field strength of ~30G.
Observations of the relative positions of fundamental and second harmonic bursts can be used to study refraction and scattering effects in the corona. Smerd, Wild and Sheridan have pointed out that the observed positions of type II bursts can be interpreted as favouring the backward emission of the second harmonic in a smooth corona. In this case the harmonic is seen after reflection from near the fundamental plasma level. Several other examples of type II and type III bursts have been reported which show this effect. We wish to present further evidence from a recent study of a large number of type III bursts observed with the 80 MHz heliograph and 158 MHz interferometer.
In a previous paper of this issue (Stewart and Nelson 1979 — Paper A) we showed that for extended bursts a good correlation exists between the observed 100 keV X-ray slux density and the 3.75 or 9.4 GHz microwave flux density. We also showed that the microwave spectrum of these bursts was much flatter (S ∝ f1.0 on the average) than the optically thick (self-absorbed) spectrum observed for impulsive microwave bursts (Crannell et al. 1978; Dulk et al. 1978). Furthermore, the microwave turnover frequency was > 10 GHz in eight of the nine events studied and <20 GHz in four of these cases. The remaining event, which was severely occulted by the solar limb, had a turnover frequency of ∽ 1 GHz.
Travelling disturbances in the solar corona with velocities ~103 km/s manifest themselves at radio frequencies by two distinctive phenomena—the type II burst, the spectrum of which shows a slow frequency drift that corresponds to quasi-radial outward motion, and the moving type IV burst, for which positional observations show transverse motion directly. A close relation between the two phenomena has long been suspected, and each type has separately been ascribed to a shock wave disturbance. In this paper we summarize three events recorded by the Culgoora radioheliograph and spectograph (two in the course of publication and one unpublished) in each of which a type II and a moving type IV burst can be consistently attributed to the effects of a common shock wave.
In 1961 Fokker and Roosen suggested that the concept of homology as applied to solar optical flares by Ellison, McKenna and Reid could be extended to flare-associated radio events as well, since successive flares within the same centre of activity sometimes produce radio bursts which look remarkably similar on single-frequency records. Teresa Fortini reported very similar ionospheric responses due to X-radiation from flares recurring in the same active region. In 1950 Wild noted similarities in the dynamic spectra of type III bursts occurring within periods of minutes.