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Questions of state formation and public authority have been at the top of the development and political agenda in Nepal since 2006. The post-2006 so-called ‘political transition’ has been characterized by rising ethnic tensions, violence, strikes, and a bewildering kaleidoscope of leaders gaining political leverage, only to be marginalized again. In 2015, the Constitution was finally adopted following the earthquakes and amid violent protests from groups who felt their needs were marginalized in the final version. In this article we are concerned to probe how struggles over different technologies of government help throw into relief the various terrains within which public authority is claimed and contested, and, as a result, help to expose the limits of the state. Using the forestry sector as an ethnographic lens, we argue that there is both a profound failure by the state to provide services and stable governance as well as an ability to reproduce itself and to function in some contexts. It is therefore important to understand public authority during this period as both stable and unstable—and at times, instability is what helps to perpetuate particular imaginaries of the Nepali state.
We report the results of Long Baseline Array observations made in 2001 of ten southern sources proposed by Mattox et al. as counterparts to EGRET >100 MeV gamma-ray sources. Source structures are compared with published data where available and possible superluminal motions identified in several cases. The associations are examined in the light of Fermi observations, indicating that the confirmed counterparts tend to have radio properties consistent with other identifications, including flat radio spectral index, high brightness temperature, greater radio variability, and higher core dominance.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
We have obtained 15 and 22 GHz linear polarization VLBA images of a sample of strong and rapidly variable polarized sources at six epochs over one year. We observe rapid changes, in both cores and jet components, in total intensity, both with and without associated changes in polarization. Changes in the cores are probably associated with the births of new components. Images of one quasar (3C 273) and one BL Lacertae object (OJ 287) from two epochs are shown here. No significant Faraday rotation is observed at any epoch in any position in either source.
Circular polarization has been detected in 3C 279 and 3C 84 at multiple epochs, using the VLBA at 15 GHz. This is the first detection of circular polarization in a compact radio source at VLBI resolution. In the case of 3C 279 the polarization is most likely produced by the conversion of linear to circular polarization by low energy relativistic electrons in the emitting region. If this is so, the absence of Faraday rotation by the same electrons suggests that the jet consists of an electron-positron plasma.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to be penetrated and eroded by
sharp projections of other materials such as diamond. The process of creating sharp
projections on any test surface is known as indentation. Hardness measurement of any
material is the result of a complex process of deformation during indentation. The
indenter tip geometry, which includes radius of curvature at the tip and tip angle,
affects the hardness measurement by influencing the nature of the penetration process on
the test surface, because every indenter deforms the specimen surface with a different
geometry. The controlled indenter geometry can improve the consistency of hardness
measurement. In this paper we report the estimation of two important geometrical
parameters, radius of curvature and tip angle of a Rockwell indenter by using a simple
method of image processing and compare the results with those obtained with a traceable 3D
optical profiler. Evaluation of uncertainty in measuremts is carried out as per ISO
guidelines (ISO-GUM) and a detailed uncertainty budget is presented. The tip angle
estimted is 119.95 degree. The radius of curvature is estimted to be 199.96 ± 0.80μm by image analysis which
agrees well with the value estimated by using optical profiler i.e. 199.12 μm.
The majority of Fermi-LAT detected (2FGL) sources are AGN, mostly blazars. However, the second largest category in the 2FGL are unassociated sources (~30% or 575 sources), whose multi-wavelength counterpart is either inconclusive or absent. Follow-up observations and archival data at X-ray, optical, and radio frequencies suggest that many unassociated 2FGL sources are strong candidates to be AGN. Typical observed characteristics of 2FGL detected AGN include variability at all frequencies and a spectral energy distribution (SED) with two “bumps”; a low-frequency synchrotron peak in the radio to optical/X-ray region and a high-frequency peak, possibly due to synchrotron self-Compton or Inverse Compton processes, that extends up to TeV energies. We present optical follow-up observations of a sample of Fermi unassociated sources with one or more potential X-ray counterparts detected within the LAT error circle.
The Micro-arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey and its follow-up observations have provided large datasets of AGN intra-day variability (IDV) at radio wavelengths. These data have shown that IDV arises mainly from scintillation caused by scattering in the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, based on correlation with Galactic latitudes and line-of-sight Galactic electron column densities. The sensitivity of interstellar scintillation (ISS) towards source angular sizes has provided a new tool for studying the most compact components of radio-loud AGNs at microarcsecond (μas) scale resolution - much higher than any ground-based radio interferometer. We present here key results from the MASIV Survey and its follow-up observations, and point to relevant papers where these results have been published.
Interstellar scintillation (ISS) has been shown to be primarily responsible for the short term intraday variability (IDV) exhibited by extragalactic sources at centimeter wavelengths (e.g. Bignall et al. 2006 and references therein). For a source to scintillate its angular size must be comparable to that of the first Fresnel zone (Narayan 1992) which implies microarcsecond angular sizes for screen distances of tens to hundreds of parsecs. This has the potential to probe within a few light months of the central black hole (Bignall et al. 2006). The aim of the Microarcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) survey was to provide a catalogue of at least a hundred AGNs that vary on timescales of hours to days to provide the basis of detailed studies of the IDV population drawn from a well-defined sample.
Little information is available about perceptions of influenza vaccination of parents with healthy children in daycare. Therefore, we systematically explored the relationship between parental risk perception and influenza vaccination in children attending daycare. We distributed a self-administered paper survey to parents of children aged 6–59 months attending licensed daycare centres in Tarrant County, Texas. We used conditional logistic regression with penalized conditional likelihood to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% profile likelihood confidence limits (PL) for parental risk-perception factors and influenza vaccination. A high level of parental prevention behaviours (OR 9·1, 95% PL 3·2, 31) and physician recommendation (OR 8·2, 95% PL 2·7, 30) had the highest magnitudes of association with influenza vaccination of healthy children in daycare. Our results provide evidence about critical determinants of influenza vaccination of healthy children in daycare, which could help inform public health interventions aimed at increasing influenza vaccination coverage in this population.
The discovery that interstellar scintillation (ISS) is suppressed for compact radio sources at z ≳ 2 has enabled ISS surveys to be used as cosmological probes. We discuss briefly the potential and challenges involved in such an undertaking, based on a dual-frequency survey of ISS carried out to determine the origin of this redshift dependence.
The structure of irradiated material near a primary knock on atom shortly after impact is largely unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations with classical force fields provide the foundation for our current understanding of the resulting cascade. Atomic level structural characterization is often in terms defects within the context of a perfect bulk, however, the choice of the best representation is complicated because the density of defects is high, the material is inhomogeneous and it is not in equilibrium. Here we explore the adaptation of tools typically employed to characterize homogeneous equilibrium liquids to the highly defected region of the cascade. The cascade structure shows some resemblance to that of the liquid or glass phase. The local temperature temporarily exceeds the melting temperature and the free energies of the liquid and defected crystal are comparable. Analysis of cascade structure will be important to the interpretation of first principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic states in cascade structures.
Optical waveguides for three-dimensionally stacked chip fabrication
technologies, in which optical connection between layers plays a central
role, are described. CMOS-compatible approaches to optical via and waveguide
fabrication are addressed. Detailed modeling is used for design optimization
and also addresses how manufacturing variations from ideal design may affect
Polymerization occurring during fluorocarbon plasma treatment as a potential
method for pore sealing was investigated. CHF3 was used as a
reactant gas to expedite the rate of polymerization due to the presence of
hydrogen and the low C/F ratio. The reactor pressure was varied from 30mTorr
to 90mTorr to change the number of neutrals that act as the polymerizing
species. The films were exposed to the plasma for times of 1min, 3min, and 5
min to observe the penetration depth of neutrals and the thickness of
modified layer as a function of time. Dielectric constants were measured
before and after plasma treatment. The film morphology was investigated by
scanning electron microscopy before and after plasma treatment and a
featureless surface morphology was observed at 90mTorr on a 56% porosity
film. After plasma treatment, the average pore neck size decreases which may
help reduce metal precursor penetration during metallization.
The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications of phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indicate that phage therapy is potentially useful in virulent Salmonella and E. coli infections in chickens, calves and pigs, and in control of the food-borne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens and E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. However, more rigorous and comprehensive research is required to determine the true potential of phage therapy. Particular challenges include the selection and characterization of phages, practical modes of administration, and development of formulations that maintain the viability of phages for administration. Also, meaningful evaluation of phage therapy will require animal studies that closely represent the intended use, and will include thorough investigation of the emergence and characteristics of phage resistant bacteria. As well, effective use will require understanding the ecology and dynamics of the endemic and therapeutic phages and their interactions with target bacteria in the farm environment. In the event that the potential of phage therapy is realized, adoption will depend on its efficacy and complementarity relative to other interventions. Another potential challenge will be regulatory approval.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
This book analyses how diverse knowledge systems operate in the field of natural resource management in Nepal. In order to examine the status of knowledge systems interface and identify the challenges of participatory and deliberative governance of natural resources, the book presents six case studies on forest, agriculture and water governance at different levels – from local community (such as a farmer managed irrigation system) to national research system (such as national agricultural research council) and civil society networking (such as national federation of community forestry users). The over arching issue being addressed in the book is – how questions of equity, efficiency and sustainability in natural resource management are shaped, influenced and determined by deliberative interfaces among diverse knowledge systems associated with diverse groups of social agents engaged in the practice of natural resource governance. Analysis of this issue in the light of empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives can help us draw policy and practical implications for effective knowledge management and social learning in natural resource governance. The book is primarily an analysis of Nepal's experiences and the findings have much wider relevance.
The rationale of the book rests on the need to explore innovative processes and policies to facilitate inclusive, deliberative and equitable governance of resources. Despite recent upsurge of participatory innovations in development actions (Chambers 1994; Chambers 1997) and natural resource management, there is a continuing concern over limited real achievement in terms of local livelihood, economic contributions and natural resource sustainability (Cook and Kothari 2001; Edmunds and Wollenberg 2002; Colfer and Capistrano 2005).
Socially powerful actors tend to influence the resource governance decisions using various forms of power. They influence the values, behaviour and action of an individual as well as institutions in various ways. In this process, how the knowledge in practice is contested and politicised in influencing such decisions is a growing concern. Increasingly, it has become more important to understand the ways through which certain knowledge is legitimised within institutions and decision making process and how it is impinging on the daily lives and struggles of the poor and powerless, especially women and indigenous people who are highly dependent on forest resources for their livelihoods. In this context, there is a need to understand better the social dynamics of natural resource management with particular reference to knowledge related politics.
Common pool resources, including forest resources, have been highly contested domains in developing countries including Nepal. Various actors with their diverse interests are engaged and influence the overall contexts, processes and outcomes of the resource management regimes. Over the past 25 years of implementation of community forestry in Nepal, about 35 per cent of the total population is involved in the management of about 27 per cent forest land, generating 900 million rupees annually from the sale of forest products (Kanel 2004). Underpinning this development is an increased level of citizen's concern over those resources.