Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
The South China Sea (SCS) is a biodiversity hotspot, however, most biodiversity surveys in the region are confined to shallow water reefs. Here, we studied the benthic habitat and fish assemblages in the upper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; 30–40 m) and SWRs (8–22 m) at three geographic locations (Luzon Strait; Palawan; and the Kalayaan Group of Islands) in the eastern SCS (also called the West Philippine Sea) using diver-based survey methods. Mean coral genera and fish species richness ranged from 17–25 (per 25 m2) and 11–17 (per 250 m2) in MCEs, respectively; although none of these were novel genera/species. Coral and fish assemblages were structured more strongly by location than by depth. Location differences were associated with the variability in benthic composition, wherein locations with higher hard coral cover had higher coral genera richness and abundance. Locations with higher algae and sand cover had higher diversity and density of fish herbivores and benthic invertivores. Fishing efforts may also have contributed to among-location differences as the highly exploited location had the lowest fish biomass. The low variation between depths may be attributed to the similar benthic composition at each location, the interconnectivity between depths due to hydrological conditions, fish motility, and the common fishing gears used in the Philippines that can likely extend beyond SWRs. Results imply that local-scale factors and anthropogenic disturbances probably dampen across-depth structuring in coral genera and fish species assemblages.
Immune system markers may predict affective disorder treatment response, but whether an overall immune system marker predicts bipolar disorder treatment effect is unclear.
Bipolar CHOICE (N = 482) and LiTMUS (N = 283) were similar comparative effectiveness trials treating patients with bipolar disorder for 24 weeks with four different treatment arms (standard-dose lithium, quetiapine, moderate-dose lithium plus optimised personalised treatment (OPT) and OPT without lithium). We performed secondary mixed effects linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking and body mass index to investigate relationships between pre-treatment white blood cell (WBC) levels and clinical global impression scale (CGI) response.
Compared to participants with WBC counts of 4.5–10 × 109/l, participants with WBC < 4.5 or WBC ≥ 10 showed similar improvement within each specific treatment arm and in gender-stratified analyses.
An overall immune system marker did not predict differential treatment response to four different treatment approaches for bipolar disorder all lasting 24 weeks.
Experimental and numerical investigations into the linear and nonlinear aeroelastic behaviour of very flexible High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) wings are conducted to assess the effect of geometrical nonlinearities on wings displaying moderate-to-large displacement. The study shows that the dynamic behaviour of wings under large deflection, and specifically the edgewise and torsion natural frequencies and modal characteristics, are largely affected by the presence of geometrical nonlinearities. A modular wing structure has been manufactured by rapid prototyping and it has been tested to characterise its dynamic and aeroelastic behaviour. At first, several simple isotropic cantilever beams with selected crosssections are numerically investigated to extract their modal characteristics. Experiments are subsequently conducted to validate the geometrically nonlinear dynamics behaviour due to high tip displacement and to understand the influence of the beam cross-section geometry. The structural dynamics and aeroelastic analysis of a very flexible modular selected wing is then investigated. Clean-wing wind-tunnel tests are carried out to assess flutter and dynamic response. The wind-tunnel model display interesting aeroelastic features including the substantial influence of the wing large deformation on its natural frequencies and modal characteristics.
Maternal pre-pregnancy weight has been related with young singletons’ cognitive and behavioral development, but it is not clear if it has an effect on temperament. We used a twin cohort to evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and infants’ temperament. The mothers of 834 twins answered questions regarding their pre-pregnancy BMI and their 0- to 18-month-old children’s temperament using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Three temperamental dimensions were examined: activity level, distress to limitation and duration of orienting. The relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and each temperamental component was investigated by means of multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analysis. We found no clear evidence of an association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with twins’ temperament. The development of temperament is influenced by a large number of factors, probably different from those influencing children’s emotional and behavioral development.
Approaches to building temporal information extraction systems typically rely on large, manually annotated corpora. Thus, porting these systems to new languages requires acquiring large corpora of manually annotated documents in the new languages. Acquiring such corpora is difficult owing to the complexity of temporal information extraction annotation. One strategy for addressing this difficulty is to reduce or eliminate the need for manually annotated corpora through annotation projection. This technique utilizes a temporal information extraction system for a source language (typically English) to automatically annotate the source language side of a parallel corpus. It then uses automatically generated word alignments to project the annotations, thereby creating noisily annotated target language training data. We developed an annotation projection technique for producing target language temporal information extraction systems. We carried out an English (source) to French (target) case study wherein we compared a French temporal information extraction system built using annotation projection with one built using a manually annotated French corpus. While annotation projection has been applied to building other kinds of Natural Language Processing tools (e.g., Named Entity Recognizers), to our knowledge, this is the first paper examining annotation projection as applied to temporal information extraction where no manual corrections of the target language annotations were made. We found that, even using manually annotated data to build a temporal information extraction system, F-scores were relatively low (<0.35), which suggests that the problem is challenging even with manually annotated data. Our annotation projection approach performed well (relative to the system built from manually annotated data) on some aspects of temporal information extraction (e.g., event–document creation time temporal relation prediction), but it performed poorly on the other kinds of temporal relation prediction (e.g., event–event and event–time).
Hurricane Harvey made landfall in southeast Texas in August 2017, causing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region. Residents of affected regions were forced to evacuate to nearby unaffected areas, including Dallas, TX, where a large shelter operation was opened for 23 days to care for those evacuees. Retrospective evaluation of pharmaceutical prescribing patterns for the evacuees who self-presented to the Megashelter Medical Clinic (MMC) established in the shelter contributes to developing evidence-based planning strategies for healthcare delivery in the post-disaster setting.
To describe the pharmacy needs of a displaced population following a large-scale evacuation after a hurricane
De-identified prescription records written and filled at a shelter pharmacy were reviewed, looking at both cost and category of medications dispensed over time.
Approximately 41% of evacuees with a total of 2,654 visits utilized the MMC clinic, resulting in 1,590 prescriptions filled with an associated cost of $78,039. The most commonly prescribed drug categories were cardiovascular (21.2%), neuropsychotropic (15.6%), infectious disease (12.5%), and endocrine (9.6%). While the most commonly dispensed were antihypertensives, diabetes treatment-related prescriptions, antibacterials, antidepressants, and NSAIDs, the costliest individual prescriptions were antiretrovirals and antipsychotics.
Prescribing patterns for the MMC differed from normal prescribing patterns of a general population. Of the prescriptions dispensed at the MMC, pharmaceutical prescription patterns suggest the immediate needs of evacuees differ from later needs. There is a greater need for chronic disease management in the early phase of shelter operations, and an increasing need for neuropsychotropic and infectious disease prescriptions over time. Understanding overall patterns of drug utilization over the duration of the shelter provides valuable insight on post-disaster medical resource utilization in evacuee populations.
Here, we report that a marine sandworm Nereis virens jaw protein, Nvjp1, nucleates hemozoin with similar activity as the native parasite hemozoin protein, HisRPII. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirm the identity of the hemozoin produced from Nvjp1-containing reactions. Finally, we observed that nAl assembled with hemozoin from Nvjp1 reactions has a substantially higher energetic output when compared to analogous thermite from the synthetic standard or HisRPII-nucleated hemozoin. Our results demonstrate that a marine sandworm protein can nucleate malaria pigment and set the stage for engineering recombinant hemozoin production for nanoenergetic applications.
This article explores the growing interface between social media and academic publishing. We discuss how the British Journal of Psychiatry (BJPsych) and other scientific journals are engaging with social media to communicate in a digital world. A growing body of evidence suggests that public visibility and constructive conversation on social media networks can be beneficial for researchers and clinicians, influencing research in a number of key ways. This engagement presents new opportunities for more widely disseminating information, but also carries risks. We note future prospects and ask where BJPsych should strategically place itself in this rapidly changing environment.
Declaration of interest
J.R.H., J.F.H. and D.T. are on the editorial board of the BJPsych. D.T. runs its social media arm.
The transient force exerted by a low-speed liquid droplet impinging onto a flat rigid surface is investigated experimentally. The measurements employ a high-sensitivity piezo-electric sensor, along with a high-speed camera, and cover four decades in droplet Reynolds number and greater than two decades in Weber number. Across these ranges, the peak of individual force profiles span from 3 mN to over 1300 mN. Once normalised, the force–time profiles support the existence of an inertially dominated self-similar regime. Within this regime, previous numerical and theoretical studies predict a
dependence of impact normal force during the initial pre-peak rise. While our measurements confirm this finding, they also indicate that, after the peak force the profiles exhibit an exponential decay. This long-time decay law suggests treatment of the momentum transport from the droplet using a lumped model. An observed linear dependence between the force and force decay rate supports this approach. The reason for the efficacy of treating this system via a lumped model apparently connects to the physics right at the surface that limit the rate of momentum transport from the droplet to the surface. This is explored by estimating the momentum transfer by solely using the deforming droplet shape, but under the condition of negligible momentum gradients within the droplet. The short- and long-time solutions are combined and the resulting model equation is shown to accurately cover the entire force–time profile.
The Pentland Hills sponge fauna (Llandovery, Telychian) consists of an unusual, aberrant assemblage, but of low diversity. A new specimen of a unique sponge, Eoghanospongia carlinslowpensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the classic locality of R82. The mushroom-shaped, probably stalked body (peduncle attachment to body not exposed) resembles that of some living rossellids, especially Caulophacus. The sponge also shows prominent projecting pentactins and monaxon derivatives – a spicule type diagnostic of the Rossellidae among living taxa, albeit in a robust form not described from extant sponges, including Caulophacus or other pedunculate lyssacinosidans. Certain attribution to the Rossellidae is not possible from the single specimen, largely because of weak preservation of the primary spicule skeleton, but no other fossil or modern sponges show any significant similarity to it. Although similarly early relatives of the Rossellidae have recently been described from elsewhere, the new sponge is even more unexpected in being from a shallow-water environment, making the absence of rossellids through the rest of the Palaeozoic much more problematic.
The electron probe is an extremely valuable tool for chemical analysis on a microscopic scale. There are many situations, however, that require analyses in the millimeter rather than micron range, where in fact, the use of the electron probe causes concern about sample homogeneity. The X-ray probe consisting of a small X-ray beam and focusing monochromator is very useful for this intermediate region. This X-ray probe is equally useful for electrically non-conducting as well as conducting specimens. Analysis need not be performed in vacuum and can be done with great rapidity.
For example by traversing a polished section of a combination of opaque minerals, it was possible to determine the distribution of copper, silver, arsenic, iron, and mercury and to show that an unidentified mineral was a copper arsenic mineral rather than an arsenoargentite as had been supposed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of microvascular complications. We sought to determine the association between diabetes mellitus status and microvascular circulatory disease, as measured in the sublingual capillary bed. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We prospectively recruited adults with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors or established CV disease, with and without DM, who were referred for invasive coronary angiography at an urban tertiary care medical center. All participants underwent non-invasive sublingual sidestream darkfield microscopy. The primary outcome was the perfused boundary region (PBR), a measure reflecting the extent to which red blood cells (RBC) penetrate the sublingual glycocalyx in vessels between 5 and 25 µm in width. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 57 participants were enrolled. The mean age was 66.1 ± 11.1 years and a majority of participants (66%) were men. DM was present in 18 (31.6%) participants. Sublingual PBR measurements were not different between participants with and without DM overall (1.93µm vs. 1.96µm, p=0.63) or in vessels with high flow (1.48µm vs. 1.59µm, p=0.08). No differences in capillary RBC filling (72.9% vs 73.0%, p=0.95) or perfused microvascular density (3112 vs. 3236 µm/mm2, p=0.32) by DM status were observed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In a population of adults with CV risk factors or disease, DM was not associated with impaired sublingual microvascular glycocalyx. Additional investigation into diabetes-induced microvascular impairment is warranted.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: By combining clinical knowledge of hoarding disorder (HD) with qualitative methods from cultural anthropology, we hope to build a patient-centered approach that will allow us to better understand the clinician perspectives on patient motivations and explanatory models of individuals with HD, and improve treatment outcomes. We describe the ways that these methodologies are productively merged in this project as a result of TL1 collaboration, and present a preliminary picture of methodological and theoretical issues uncovered as part of this processes. We further describe the analytical methods used for this project, and explore issues raised through the combination of psychological and anthropological data and insights. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study represents an attempt to combine the qualitative methodologies of cultural anthropology with the clinical knowledge of psychology and psychiatry in order to better understand gaps between provider and patient beliefs and knowledge about hoarding disorder. This study will present preliminary methodological issues arising from interviews with hoarding experts. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study will discuss preliminary issues including shared language, strengths and limitations of both disciplines, and factors for consideration when combining these disparate methodologies. It will close with recommendations for consideration when moving forward with similar collaborations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project seeks to unite psychological and social factors that may contribute to the lived experience of individuals with HD in order to better understand the way that HD is manifested. It also unites disparate methodologies to provide us with a more holistic and complete picture of the experience of HD. While HD has been studied within psychiatry, it has never been assessed using the qualitative methods of anthropology. These methods provide the possibility of expanding knowledge about the ways that this disorder is experienced by individuals and their families, and potentially impacted by shared beliefs and cultures. Furthermore, qualitative data of this nature provides a patient perspective on the experience of HD as a psychiatric illness. This patient perspective can be used to better inform treatment, improve patient outcomes, and to allow providers and researchers to gain a fuller understanding of this complex population.