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Acute rheumatic fever (ARF), an auto-immune response to a group A Streptococcus infection and precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), remains endemic in many socio-economically disadvantaged settings. A Global Resolution on ARF and RHD was recently adopted at the 71st World Health Assembly where governments committed to improving efforts to prevent and control ARF and RHD. To inform these efforts, the objectives of this study were to examine associations between childhood ARF in the UK between 1958 and 1969 and a range of environmental and social factors. Of 17 416 children from the nationally representative birth cohort of the National Child Development Study, ARF was reported in 23 children during early childhood (between birth and the 7-year follow-up) and in 29 additional children during middle childhood (between the 7- and 11-year follow-ups). Risk factors associated with ARF in both early and middle childhood were: a large family size; attendance at a private nursery or class; a history of nephritis, kidney or urinary tract infections; and a history of throat or ear infections. Risk factors for ARF in early childhood alone were families with fathers in a professional or semi-professional occupation and families who moved out of their local neighbourhood. Risk factors in late childhood alone included overcrowding and free school meals. These data suggest that prevention strategies in ARF endemic settings may be enhanced by targeting, for example, new members entering a community and children in environments of close contact, such as a nursery or shared bedrooms.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
The various techniques for discovering active galaxies are reviewed, the main emphasis being on optical techniques and their application to emission-line galaxies with active nuclei. The three principal sets of selection criteria involve morphology, colours and emission lines. The major extant lists of emission line galaxies are summarized. Problems of detection are discussed, including selection effects and the use of automatic plate measuring machines. The difficulties of generating useful statistics on different classes of objects are highlighted, but no attempt is made in deriving new statistics or to summarize those in the literature.
A new VLBI system has been developed and put into operation. The system has three distinctive characteristics as compared with current VLBI practice, namely, the use of a wavefront clock at each station, the capability of a burst mode operation with high speed sampling, and the use of multiple 12 Mb/s data recording channels on commercial VCR's. The main use of the system is to be in geophysical investigations where these new features may prove of value.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
It came as a great surprise that many dwarf elliptical galaxies of very low surface brightness in the Virgo Cluster have conspicuous bright star-like nuclei (Reaves 1983, Binggeli, Sandage and Tammann 1985). These nuclei are at least a factor of 10 more luminous than the brightest globular clusters in the Local Group and comparable only to the very brightest globulars surrounding M87. They contain a considerable fraction (1 to 20%) of the total light of the parent galaxy (Binggeli, priv. commun.). Their physical nature and origin are a matter of debate (Zinnecker et al. 1985, van den Bergh 1985, Norman 1986, Zinnecker 1986) but optical spectroscopy for 3 objects indicates a stellar composition with a range similar to globular clusters (Bothun et al. 1985). It has been suggested that a central nucleus is formed when off-center bound star clusters migrate to the center as a consequence of dynamical friction (Norman 1986). Support for such a scenario comes from CCD observations of IC 3475 which reveal numerous knots near the center of this dwarf irregular galaxy (Vigroux et al. 1986). These knots have the same color as the parent galaxy and are interpreted as intermediate age star clusters.
We present preliminary results from a study of the radial velocities of red horizontal branch stars in the north-eastern outer parts of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The sample is located in an area with a large line-of-sight depth of 15 kpc. It is suggested that there is a correlation between line-of-sight distance and radial velocity for these stars, with the more distant ones showing significantly higher velocities.
This small cluster is situated in the western region of the SMC at α = 0h 26m 13s, ε = −73°, 1′, 20″ (1950) and has been chosen for study in the initial post-launch period of the Hubble Space Telescope. This preliminary study was made using data obtained using a CCD camera on the SAAO 1 m telescope in October 1984.
This paper presents a color magnitude diagram for the enigmatic cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139 = C1328 − 472) tracing the main sequence down to V ~ 21.5. The spread in color on the upper main sequence is confirmed as intrinsic to the cluster. The CCD observations were made using the SAAO 1 m telescope with the UCL CCD camera and the RGO CCD camera at the prime focus of the AAT.
We discuss nucleosynthesis within 6 M⊙ models with Z = 0.02, 0.008 and 0.004. The emphasis is on the AGB phase of evolution, with particular reference to thermal pulses and Hot Bottom Burning. We find strong CN cycling, with substantial Al production, especially at low metallicities.
The multi-object spectroscopic facility FOCAP at the Anglo-Australian Telescope has been used to obtain spectra centred at the Ca II IR triplet of 14 stars in the field of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. This satellite of our own Galaxy was recently discovered by Irwin et al. (1990) from APM measures of UK Schmidt Telescope photographic plates.
With the exception of the activities associated with the XXIII IAU General Assembly in Kyoto, Japan, in August 1997, the report period (July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1999) has been a relatively quiet one for Commission 37. Commission activities have been restricted primarily to the consideration of proposals for IAU Symposia and Colloquia together with some activity related to cluster nomenclature issues. At the General Assembly the commission was involved in either supporting or co-supporting four Joint Discussion sessions and one of the accompanying Symposia. Eighteen new members were added to the commission, increasing membership by just under 10%.
Optical spectra of the ejecta of SN 1987A taken at the AAT now cover seven years of evolution. In recent years, SN 1987A has been in a phase known as freeze-out. The timescales for recombination have exceeded those of energy deposition, and the ionisation structure has become fixed. During this phase, cooling is slow and the optical spectrum has been extremely stable. Our latest spectrum, however, shows significant change. [FeI] and [FeII] emission from iron-rich clumps has dominated the optical emission from the supernova over the last four years. All the [FeII] features have disappeared in our latest spectrum from December 1993 and model fits of [FeI] features indicate that these clumps have cooled to the critical temperature of 1000 K. They may be entering a phase of rapid cooling known as the infrared catastrophe. In addition, emission at high velocities has strengthened, in line with the predictions of freeze-out. SN 1987A may be entering a new, and previously unobserved, phase in supernova evolution.
The U.K. 1.2 metre Schmidt Telescope acquired its first full aperture objective prism in 1975. This was a very low dispersion prism (2400 Å/mm at 4300 Å) which has been found to be particularly useful in searching for faint QSO’s.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
The basic observational evidence for helium-burning red giants in open clusters has been given elsewhere, and I shall give here only a summary and then describe in more detail new results for one cluster, NGC 2477.