Skip to main content Accessibility help

Prefrontal cortical thinning links to negative symptoms in schizophrenia via the ENIGMA consortium

  • E. Walton (a1) (a2) (a3), D. P. Hibar (a4), T. G. M. van Erp (a5), S. G. Potkin (a5), R. Roiz-Santiañez (a6) (a7), B. Crespo-Facorro (a6) (a7), P. Suarez-Pinilla (a6) (a7), N. E. M. van Haren (a8), S. M. C. de Zwarte (a8), R. S. Kahn (a8), W. Cahn (a8), N. T. Doan (a9), K. N. Jørgensen (a9) (a10), T. P. Gurholt (a9), I. Agartz (a9) (a10) (a11), O. A. Andreassen (a9) (a12), L. T. Westlye (a12), I. Melle (a9) (a12), A. O. Berg (a9), L. Morch-Johnsen (a9) (a10), A. Færden (a13), L. Flyckt (a14), H. Fatouros-Bergman (a14), Karolinska Schizophrenia Project Consortium (KaSP), E. G. Jönsson (a9) (a11), R. Hashimoto (a15) (a16), H. Yamamori (a16), M. Fukunaga (a17), N. Jahanshad (a4), P. De Rossi (a18) (a19) (a20), F. Piras (a19) (a21), N. Banaj (a19), G. Spalletta (a19) (a22), R. E. Gur (a23), R. C. Gur (a23), D. H. Wolf (a23), T. D. Satterthwaite (a23), L. M. Beard (a23), I. E. Sommer (a8), S. Koops (a8), O. Gruber (a24), A. Richter (a24), B. Krämer (a24), S. Kelly (a4) (a25), G. Donohoe (a26), C. McDonald (a26), D. M. Cannon (a26), A. Corvin (a25), M. Gill (a25), A. Di Giorgio (a27), A. Bertolino (a28), S. Lawrie (a29), T. Nickson (a29), H. C. Whalley (a29), E. Neilson (a29), V. D. Calhoun (a30) (a31), P. M. Thompson (a4), J. A. Turner (a32) and S. Ehrlich (a2)...



Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.


This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).


Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (β std = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.


Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: S. Ehrlich, M.D., Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. (Email:


Hide All

Members of Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) are listed at the end of the article as collaborators.



Hide All
Aderhold, DV, Weinmann, S, Hägele, C, Heinz, A (2014). Frontale Hirnvolumenminderung durch Antipsychotika? Der Nervenarzt 86, 302323.
Andreasen, NC (1983). Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. University of Iowa: Iowa City.
Andreasen, NC, Liu, D, Ziebell, S, Vora, A, Ho, B-C (2013). Relapse duration, treatment intensity, and brain tissue loss in schizophrenia: a prospective longitudinal MRI study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 609615.
Andreasen, NC, Olsen, S (1982). Negative v positive schizophrenia. Definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 789794.
Andreasen, NC, Pressler, M, Nopoulos, P, Miller, D, Ho, B-C (2010). Antipsychotic dose equivalents and dose-years: a standardized method for comparing exposure to different drugs. Biological Psychiatry 67, 255262.
Ansell, BRE, Dwyer, DB, Wood, SJ, Bora, E, Brewer, WJ, Proffitt, TM, Velakoulis, D, McGorry, PD, Pantelis, C (2015). Divergent effects of first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics on cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine 45, 515527.
Barch, DM, Dowd, EC (2010). Goal representations and motivational drive in schizophrenia: the role of prefrontal–striatal interactions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 919934.
Bechara, A, Damasio, AR, Damasio, H, Anderson, SW (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 50, 715.
Bechara, A, Tranel, D, Damasio, H (2000). Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Brain 123, 21892202.
Behrendt, S (2014). lm.beta: Add Standardized Regression Coefficients to lm-Objects. R package version 1.5-1.
Belyk, M, Brown, S (2014). Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9, 13951403.
Berridge, KC, Kringelbach, ML (2015). Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron 86, 646664.
Bodnar, M, Hovington, CL, Buchy, L, Malla, AK, Joober, R, Lepage, M (2014). Cortical thinning in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in non-affective first-episode of psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms. PLoS ONE 9, e101372.
Bracht, T, Schnell, S, Federspiel, A, Razavi, N, Horn, H, Strik, W, Wiest, R, Dierks, T, Müller, TJ, Walther, S (2013). Altered cortico-basal ganglia motor pathways reflect reduced volitional motor activity in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 143, 269276.
Burgdorf, J, Panksepp, J (2006). The neurobiology of positive emotions. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 30, 173187.
Cahn, W, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Lems, EBTE, van Haren, NEM, Schnack, HG, van der Linden, JA, Schothorst, PF, van Engeland, H, Kahn, RS (2002). Brain volume changes in first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 10021010.
Cohen, AS, Minor, KS (2010). Emotional experience in patients with schizophrenia revisited: meta-analysis of laboratory studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 143150.
Crespo-Facorro, B, Roiz-Santiáñez, R, Pérez-Iglesias, R, Rodriguez-Sanchez, JM, Mata, I, Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D, Sanchez, E, Tabarés-Seisdedos, R, Andreasen, N, Magnotta, V, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2011). Global and regional cortical thinning in first-episode psychosis patients: relationships with clinical and cognitive features. Psychological Medicine 41, 14491460.
Davidson, RJ (2004). Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences 359, 13951412.
Deserno, L, Boehme, R, Heinz, A, Schlagenhauf, F (2013). Reinforcement learning and dopamine in schizophrenia: dimensions of symptoms or specific features of a disease group? Frontiers in Psychiatry 4, 172.
Deserno, L, Schlagenhauf, F, Heinz, A (2016). Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 18, 7789.
Desikan, RS, Ségonne, F, Fischl, B, Quinn, BT, Dickerson, BC, Blacker, D, Buckner, RL, Dale, AM, Maguire, RP, Hyman, BT, Albert, MS, Killiany, RJ (2006). An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. NeuroImage 31, 968980.
Ducharme, S, Albaugh, MD, Hudziak, JJ, Botteron, KN, Nguyen, T-V, Truong, C, Evans, AC, Karama, S, Ball, WS, Byars, AW, Schapiro, M, Bommer, W, Carr, A, German, A, Dunn, S, Rivkin, MJ, Waber, D, Mulkern, R, Vajapeyam, S, Chiverton, A, Davis, P, Koo, J, Marmor, J, Mrakotsky, C, Robertson, R, McAnulty, G, Brandt, ME, Fletcher, JM, Kramer, LA, Yang, G, McCormack, C, Hebert, KM, Volero, H, Botteron, K, McKinstry, RC, Warren, W, Nishino, T, Almli, CR, Todd, R, Constantino, J, McCracken, JT, Levitt, J, Alger, J, O'Neil, J, Toga, A, Asarnow, R, Fadale, D, Heinichen, L, Ireland, C, Wang, D-J, Moss, E, Zimmerman, RA, Bintliff, B, Bradford, R, Newman, J, Evans, AC, Arnaoutelis, R, Pike, GB, Collins, DL, Leonard, G, Paus, T, Zijdenbos, A, Das, S, Fonov, V, Fu, L, Harlap, J, Leppert, I, Milovan, D, Vins, D, Zeffiro, T, Meter, JV, Lange, N, Froimowitz, MP, Botteron, K, Almli, CR, Rainey, C, Henderson, S, Nishino, T, Warren, W, Edwards, JL, Dubois, D, Smith, K, Singer, T, Wilber, AA, Pierpaoli, C, Basser, PJ, Chang, L-C, Koay, CG, Walker, L, Freund, L, Rumsey, J, Baskir, L, Stanford, L, Sirocco, K, Gwinn-Hardy, K, Spinella, G, McCracken, JT, Alger, JR, Levitt, J, O'Neill, J (2014). Anxious/depressed symptoms are linked to right ventromedial prefrontal cortical thickness maturation in healthy children and young adults. Cerebral Cortex 24, 29412950.
Ehrlich, S, Brauns, S, Yendiki, A, Ho, B-C, Calhoun, V, Schulz, SC, Gollub, RL, Sponheim, SR (2012). Associations of cortical thickness and cognition in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 10501062.
Fellows, LK, Farah, MJ (2005). Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans. Cerebral Cortex 15, 5863.
Fisher, T, Shamay-Tsoory, SG, Eran, A, Aharon-Peretz, J (2011). Characterization of recovery and neuropsychological consequences of orbitofrontal lesion: a case study. Neurocase 17, 285293.
Furuyashiki, T, Gallagher, M (2007). Neural encoding in the orbitofrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1121, 193215.
Geisler, D, Walton, E, Naylor, M, Roessner, V, Lim, KO, Charles Schulz, S, Gollub, RL, Calhoun, VD, Sponheim, SR, Ehrlich, S (2015). Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 234, 7483.
Gold, JM, Waltz, JA, Matveeva, TM, Kasanova, Z, Strauss, GP, Herbener, ES, Collins, AGE, Frank, MJ (2012). Negative symptoms and the failure to represent the expected reward value of actions: behavioral and computational modeling evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 129138.
Goldman, AL (2009). Widespread reductions of cortical thickness in schizophrenia and spectrum disorders and evidence of heritability. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 467.
Grabenhorst, F, Rolls, ET (2011). Value, pleasure and choice in the ventral prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15, 5667.
Grabner, RH, Fink, A, Neubauer, AC (2007). Brain correlates of self-rated originality of ideas: evidence from event-related power and phase-locking changes in the EEG. Behavioral Neuroscience 121, 224230.
Haggard, P (2008). Human volition: towards a neuroscience of will. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9, 934946.
Hartz, SM, Ho, B-C, Andreasen, NC, Librant, A, Rudd, D, Epping, EA, Wassink, TH (2010). G72 influences longitudinal change in frontal lobe volume in schizophrenia. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 153B, 640647.
Harvey, P-O, Armony, J, Malla, A, Lepage, M (2010). Functional neural substrates of self-reported physical anhedonia in non-clinical individuals and in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44, 707716.
Harvey, P-O, Pruessner, J, Czechowska, Y, Lepage, M (2007). Individual differences in trait anhedonia: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study in non-clinical subjects. Molecular Psychiatry 12, 767775.
Ho, B, Andreasen, N, Ziebell, S, Pierson, R, Magnotta, V (2011). Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 128137.
Honea, R, Crow, TJ, Passingham, D, Mackay, CE (2005). Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Am J Psychiatry 162, 22332245.
Hornak, J, Bramham, J, Rolls, ET, Morris, RG, O'Doherty, J, Bullock, PR, Polkey, CE (2003). Changes in emotion after circumscribed surgical lesions of the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Brain: A Journal of Neurology 126, 16911712.
Jablensky, A (2006). Subtyping schizophrenia: implications for genetic research. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 815836.
Jeppesen, P, Petersen, L, Thorup, A, Abel, M-B, Øhlenschlæger, J, Christensen, , Krarup, G, Jørgensen, P, Nordentoft, M (2008). The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine 38, 11571166.
Kalkstein, S, Hurford, I, Gur, RC (2010). Neurocognition in schizophrenia. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 4, 373390.
Kawasaki, Y, Suzuki, M, Nohara, S, Hagino, H, Takahashi, T, Matsui, M, Yamashita, I, Chitnis, XA, McGuire, PK, Seto, H, Kurachi, M (2004). Structural brain differences in patients with schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 254, 406414.
Kawasaki, Y, Suzuki, M, Takahashi, T, Nohara, S, McGuire, PK, Seto, H, Kurachi, M (2008). Anomalous cerebral asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. Biological Psychiatry 63, 793800.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A, Opler, LA (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin 13, 261276.
Kringelbach, ML, Rolls, ET (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology 72, 341372.
Kühn, S, Gallinat, J (2012). The neural correlates of subjective pleasantness. NeuroImage 61, 289294.
Lesh, TA, Tanase, C, Geib, BR, Niendam, TA, Yoon, JH, Minzenberg, MJ, Ragland, JD, Solomon, M, Carter, CS (2015). A multimodal analysis of antipsychotic effects on brain structure and function in first-episode schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 226234.
Liu, X, Hairston, J, Schrier, M, Fan, J (2011). Common and distinct networks underlying reward valence and processing stages: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35, 12191236.
McKechanie, AG, Moorhead, TWJ, Stanfield, AC, Whalley, HC, Johnstone, EC, Lawrie, SM, Owens, DGC (2015). Negative symptoms and longitudinal grey matter tissue loss in adolescents at risk of psychosis: preliminary findings from a 6-year follow-up study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 6, 565570.
Milev, P, Ho, B-C, Arndt, S, Andreasen, NC (2005). Predictive values of neurocognition and negative symptoms on functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal first-episode study with 7-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 495506.
Mørch-Johnsen, L, Nesvåg, R, Faerden, A, Haukvik, UK, Jørgensen, KN, Lange, EH, Andreassen, OA, Melle, I, Agartz, I (2015). Brain structure abnormalities in first-episode psychosis patients with persistent apathy. Schizophrenia Research 164, 5964.
Nenadic, I, Yotter, RA, Sauer, H, Gaser, C (2015). Patterns of cortical thinning in different subgroups of schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science 206, 479483.
Nesvåg, R, Lawyer, G, Varnäs, K, Fjell, AM, Walhovd, KB, Frigessi, A, Jönsson, EG, Agartz, I (2008). Regional thinning of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia: effects of diagnosis, age and antipsychotic medication. Schizophrenia Research 98, 1628.
Oertel-Knöchel, V, Knöchel, C, Rotarska-Jagiela, A, Reinke, B, Prvulovic, D, Haenschel, C, Hampel, H, Linden, DEJ (2013). Association between psychotic symptoms and cortical thickness reduction across the schizophrenia spectrum. Cerebral Cortex 23, 6170.
Pessoa, L (2009). How do emotion and motivation direct executive control? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13, 160166.
Peters, J, Büchel, C (2010). Neural representations of subjective reward value. Behavioural Brain Research 213, 135141.
Plailly, J, d'Amato, T, Saoud, M, Royet, J-P (2006). Left temporo-limbic and orbital dysfunction in schizophrenia during odor familiarity and hedonicity judgments. NeuroImage 29, 302313.
Price, TF, Harmon-Jones, E (2011). Approach motivational body postures lean toward left frontal brain activity. Psychophysiology 48, 718722.
R Development Core Team (2008). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria.
Radua, J, Schmidt, A, Borgwardt, S, Heinz, A, Schlagenhauf, F, McGuire, P, Fusar-Poli, P (2015). Ventral striatal activation during reward processing in psychosis: a neurofunctional meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 12431251.
Rimol, LM, Hartberg, CB, Nesvåg, R, Fennema-Notestine, C, Hagler, DJ Jr., Pung, CJ, Jennings, RG, Haukvik, UK, Lange, E, Nakstad, PH, Melle, I, Andreassen, OA, Dale, AM, Agartz, I (2010). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 68, 4150.
Roesch, MR, Olson, CR (2007). Neuronal activity related to anticipated reward in frontal cortex: does it represent value or reflect motivation? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1121, 431446.
Rosenheck, R, Leslie, D, Keefe, R, McEvoy, J, Swartz, M, Perkins, D, Stroup, S, Hsiao, JK, Lieberman, J (2006). Barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 411417.
Schlagenhauf, F, Huys, QJM, Deserno, L, Rapp, MA, Beck, A, Heinze, H-J, Dolan, R, Heinz, A (2014). Striatal dysfunction during reversal learning in unmedicated schizophrenia patients. NeuroImage 89, 171180.
Schlagenhauf, F, Sterzer, P, Schmack, K, Ballmaier, M, Rapp, M, Wrase, J, Juckel, G, Gallinat, J, Heinz, A (2009). Reward feedback alterations in unmedicated schizophrenia patients: relevance for delusions. Biological Psychiatry 65, 10321039.
Schultz, CC, Koch, K, Wagner, G, Roebel, M, Schachtzabel, C, Gaser, C, Nenadic, I, Reichenbach, JR, Sauer, H, Schlösser, RGM (2010). Reduced cortical thickness in first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 116, 204209.
Segarra, N, Metastasio, A, Ziauddeen, H, Spencer, J, Reinders, NR, Dudas, RB, Arrondo, G, Robbins, TW, Clark, L, Fletcher, PC, Murray, GK (2016). Abnormal frontostriatal activity during unexpected reward receipt in depression and schizophrenia: relationship to anhedonia. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 41, 20012010.
Simon, JJ, Cordeiro, SA, Weber, M-A, Friederich, H-C, Wolf, RC, Weisbrod, M, Kaiser, S (2015). Reward system dysfunction as a neural substrate of symptom expression across the general population and patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 13701378.
Strauss, GP, Frank, MJ, Waltz, JA, Kasanova, Z, Herbener, ES, Gold, JM (2011). Deficits in positive reinforcement learning and uncertainty-driven exploration are associated with distinct aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 69, 424431.
Suzuki, M, Nohara, S, Hagino, H, Kurokawa, K, Yotsutsuji, T, Kawasaki, Y, Takahashi, T, Matsui, M, Watanabe, N, Seto, H, Kurachi, M (2002). Regional changes in brain gray and white matter in patients with schizophrenia demonstrated with voxel-based analysis of MRI. Schizophrenia Research 55, 4154.
Szatkowska, I, Bogorodzki, P, Wolak, T, Marchewka, A, Szeszkowski, W (2008). The effect of motivation on working memory: an fMRI and SEM study. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 90, 475478.
Takeuchi, H, Taki, Y, Nouchi, R, Sekiguchi, A, Kotozaki, Y, Miyauchi, CM, Yokoyama, R, Iizuka, K, Hashizume, H, Nakagawa, S, Kunitoki, K, Sassa, Y, Kawashima, R (2014). Regional gray matter density is associated with achievement motivation: evidence from voxel-based morphometry. Brain Structure & Function 219, 7183.
Tregellas, JR, Shatti, S, Tanabe, JL, Martin, LF, Gibson, L, Wylie, K, Rojas, DC (2007). Gray matter volume differences and the effects of smoking on gray matter in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 97, 242249.
van Erp, TGM, Hibar, DP, Rasmussen, JM, Glahn, DC, Pearlson, GD, Andreassen, OA, Agartz, I, Westlye, LT, Haukvik, UK, Dale, AM, Melle, I, Hartberg, CB, Gruber, O, Kraemer, B, Zilles, D, Donohoe, G, Kelly, S, McDonald, C, Morris, DW, Cannon, DM, Corvin, A, Machielsen, MWJ, Koenders, L, de Haan, L, Veltman, DJ, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Potkin, SG, Mathalon, DH, Mueller, BA, Preda, A, Macciardi, F, Ehrlich, S, Walton, E, Hass, J, Calhoun, VD, Bockholt, HJ, Sponheim, SR, Shoemaker, JM, van Haren, NEM, Pol, HEH, Ophoff, RA, Kahn, RS, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Crespo-Facorro, B, Wang, L, Alpert, KI, Jönsson, EG, Dimitrova, R, Bois, C, Whalley, HC, McIntosh, AM, Lawrie, SM, Hashimoto, R, Thompson, PM, Turner, JA (2015). Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 547553.
van Erp, TGM, Preda, A, Nguyen, D, Faziola, L, Turner, J, Bustillo, J, Belger, A, Lim, KO, McEwen, S, Voyvodic, J, Mathalon, DH, Ford, J, Potkin, SG, Fbirn (2014). Converting positive and negative symptom scores between PANSS and SAPS/SANS. Schizophrenia Research 152, 289294.
van Haren, NM, Schnack, HG, Cahn, W, van den Heuvel, MP, Lepage, C, Collins, L, Evans, AC, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Kahn, RS (2011). Changes in cortical thickness during the course of illness in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 871880.
Venkatasubramanian, G, Jayakumar, PN, Gangadhar, BN, Keshavan, MS (2008). Automated MRI parcellation study of regional volume and thickness of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 117, 420431.
Viechtbauer, (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software 36, 148.
Vita, A, De Peri, L, Deste, G, Barlati, S, Sacchetti, E (2015). The effect of antipsychotic treatment on cortical gray matter changes in schizophrenia: does the class matter? A meta-analysis and meta-regression of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Biological Psychiatry 78, 403412.
Waltz, JA, Frank, MJ, Robinson, BM, Gold, JM (2007). Selective reinforcement learning deficits in schizophrenia support predictions from computational models of striatal-cortical dysfunction. Biological Psychiatry 62, 756764.
Woods, SW (2003). Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64, 663667.
Xiao, L, Xu, H, Zhang, Y, Wei, Z, He, J, Jiang, W, Li, X, Dyck, LE, Devon, RM, Deng, Y, Li, XM (2008). Quetiapine facilitates oligodendrocyte development and prevents mice from myelin breakdown and behavioral changes. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 697708.
Xiao, Y, Lui, S, Deng, W, Yao, L, Zhang, W, Li, S, Wu, M, Xie, T, He, Y, Huang, X, Hu, J, Bi, F, Li, T, Gong, Q (2015). Altered cortical thickness related to clinical severity but not the untreated disease duration in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 201210.
Zald, DH, McHugo, M, Ray, KL, Glahn, DC, Eickhoff, SB, Laird, AR (2014). Meta-analytic connectivity modeling reveals differential functional connectivity of the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex 24, 232248.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Walton supplementary material
Walton supplementary material 1

 Word (95 KB)
95 KB
Supplementary materials

Walton supplementary material
Walton supplementary material 2

 Excel (22 KB)
22 KB

Prefrontal cortical thinning links to negative symptoms in schizophrenia via the ENIGMA consortium

  • E. Walton (a1) (a2) (a3), D. P. Hibar (a4), T. G. M. van Erp (a5), S. G. Potkin (a5), R. Roiz-Santiañez (a6) (a7), B. Crespo-Facorro (a6) (a7), P. Suarez-Pinilla (a6) (a7), N. E. M. van Haren (a8), S. M. C. de Zwarte (a8), R. S. Kahn (a8), W. Cahn (a8), N. T. Doan (a9), K. N. Jørgensen (a9) (a10), T. P. Gurholt (a9), I. Agartz (a9) (a10) (a11), O. A. Andreassen (a9) (a12), L. T. Westlye (a12), I. Melle (a9) (a12), A. O. Berg (a9), L. Morch-Johnsen (a9) (a10), A. Færden (a13), L. Flyckt (a14), H. Fatouros-Bergman (a14), Karolinska Schizophrenia Project Consortium (KaSP), E. G. Jönsson (a9) (a11), R. Hashimoto (a15) (a16), H. Yamamori (a16), M. Fukunaga (a17), N. Jahanshad (a4), P. De Rossi (a18) (a19) (a20), F. Piras (a19) (a21), N. Banaj (a19), G. Spalletta (a19) (a22), R. E. Gur (a23), R. C. Gur (a23), D. H. Wolf (a23), T. D. Satterthwaite (a23), L. M. Beard (a23), I. E. Sommer (a8), S. Koops (a8), O. Gruber (a24), A. Richter (a24), B. Krämer (a24), S. Kelly (a4) (a25), G. Donohoe (a26), C. McDonald (a26), D. M. Cannon (a26), A. Corvin (a25), M. Gill (a25), A. Di Giorgio (a27), A. Bertolino (a28), S. Lawrie (a29), T. Nickson (a29), H. C. Whalley (a29), E. Neilson (a29), V. D. Calhoun (a30) (a31), P. M. Thompson (a4), J. A. Turner (a32) and S. Ehrlich (a2)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.