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Floriculture value exceeds $5.8 billion in the United States. Environmental challenges, market trends, and diseases complicate breeding priorities. To inform breeders’ and geneticists’ research efforts, we set out to gather consumers’ preferences in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) for different rose attributes in a discrete choice experiment. The responses are modeled in WTP space, using polynomials to account for heterogeneity. Consumer preferences indicate that heat and disease tolerance were the most important aspects for subjects in the sample, followed by drought resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify breeding priorities in rosaceous plants from a consumer perspective.
Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) data analysis requires unprecedented levels of accuracy in radio interferometer pipelines. We have developed an imaging power spectrum analysis to meet these requirements and generate robust 21 cm EoR measurements. In this work, we build a signal path framework to mathematically describe each step in the analysis, from data reduction in the Fast Holographic Deconvolution (FHD) package to power spectrum generation in the εppsilon package. In particular, we focus on the distinguishing characteristics of FHD/εppsilon: highly accurate spectral calibration, extensive data verification products, and end-to-end error propagation. We present our key data analysis products in detail to facilitate understanding of the prominent systematics in image-based power spectrum analyses. As a verification to our analysis, we also highlight a full-pipeline analysis simulation to demonstrate signal preservation and lack of signal loss. This careful treatment ensures that the FHD/εppsilon power spectrum pipeline can reduce radio interferometric data to produce credible 21 cm EoR measurements.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
We sought to investigate the risk of incident major depressive disorder (MDD) attributable to a range of sleep disorders in the Danish population. Data were obtained by linking longitudinal Danish population-based registers. A total of 65,739 individuals who had first onset of depression between 1995 and 2013 were selected as cases. For each case, a set of 20 controls of the same sex, birth month and year and who had not had depression by the date that the case was diagnosed were selected at random form the population (N = 1,307,580 in total). We examined whether there was an increased rate of prior sleep disorders in MDD cases compared to controls using conditional logistic regression. An increased risk of incident depression in cases was found for all sleep disorders analyzed. Highest incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were found for circadian rhythm disorders (IRR = 7.06 [2.78–17.91]) and insomnia of inorganic origin (IRR = 6.76 [4.37–10.46]). The lowest estimated IRR was for narcolepsy (IRR = 2.00 [1.26–3.17]). Those diagnosed with a sleep disorder in the last 6 months were at highest risk of developing depression compared to those with at least 1 year since diagnosis (3.10 vs. 2.36). Our results suggest that having any sleep disorder is a risk factor for incident depression. Depression screening should be considered for patients with sleep disorders, and where possible, long-term follow-up for mental health problems is advisable.
There is international interest in the training of psychological therapists to deliver evidence-based treatment for common mental health problems. The UK Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, one of the largest training initiatives, relies on competent therapists to successfully deliver cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and promote good patient outcome.
To evaluate an IAPT CBT training course by assessing if trainees’ clinical skills improve during training and reach competency standards, and to report patient outcome for submitted training cases. To investigate a possible relationship between trainee competence and patient outcome. To explore professional differences during training.
CBT trainee (n = 252) competence was assessed via audio recordings of therapy sessions at the beginning, middle and end of training. Patient pre- to post-treatment outcomes were extracted from submitted training cases (n = 1927). Differences in professional background were examined across competence, academic final grade and tutorial support.
CBT trainees attained competence by the end of the course with 77% (anxiety recordings) and 72% (depression recordings) improving reliably. Training cases reported pre- to post-treatment effect sizes of 1.08–2.26 across disorders. CBT competence predicted a small variance in clinical outcome for depression cases. Differences in professional background emerged, with clinical psychologists demonstrating greater competence and higher academic grades. Trainees without a core professional background required more additional support to achieve competence.
Part of a new CBT therapist workforce was successfully trained to deliver relatively brief treatment effectively. Trainees without a core profession can be successfully trained to competence, but may need additional support. This has implications for workforce training.
The Working Party has produced this report in order to prompt readers to engage at an early stage in InsurTech projects, through considering (i) the full range of risks associated with InsurTech developments, (ii) the lifecycle of an InsurTech venture and how any risk considerations may vary over this lifecycle and (iii) the extent to which InsurTech ventures align with risk strategy and risk appetite.
The report contains practical guidance for actuaries, risk professionals, insurance companies and their Boards on these considerations, and can be used to facilitate appropriate questioning, to help ensure that InsurTech-related business decisions are fully cognisant of the risk management issues and to help ensure the success of projects.
The Working Party developed this guidance having carried out an industry survey on a number of risk management topics relating to InsurTech, as well as having carried out interviews with a number of relevant senior stakeholders across the insurance industry, in order to better understand current sentiment and how risk management plays a part when considering opportunities in InsurTech. The Working Party views on the findings from these activities are summarised in the report.
It is well established that there is a high prescribing rate of psychotropic agents in residential aged care (RAC). The appropriateness of these medications has become controversial, given the limited data on efficacy and growing evidence of associated adverse outcomes.
To assess psychotropic prescribing in RAC including identification of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) and common psychological and behavioral symptoms indicated for prescribing. These were viewed in context of dementia and different RAC facilities.
Electronic care plans of 779 RAC residents across 12 facilities were examined to elucidate psychotropic prescribing rates, PIPs, and indications for use.
One in two residents (48.1%) were prescribed a psychotropic drug. The primary reasons for prescribing were depression (61.5%), anxiety (26.7%), sleep problems (25.4%), agitation (13.7%), psychosis (11.0%), and other behaviors (7.2%). Residents with dementia (56.6%) were more likely to be prescribed a drug for agitation and psychosis, and had a significantly increased prescription rate for antidepressants (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.08–2.08, p = 0.01) and antipsychotics (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.23–2.88, p < 0.01). Conversely, residents with dementia were less likely to receive medication to combat sleeping difficulties, with significantly lower benzodiazepine prescribing (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.44–0.91, p = 0.01). Over half of all psychotropic prescriptions (54.0%) were potentially inappropriate based on the Beers Criteria. There was high variability of prescribing rates between homes.
There is a high prescribing rate of potentially inappropriate medications. Residents with dementia are more likely to receive medication for agitation and psychosis, and are less likely to receive medication to combat sleeping difficulties.
Better indicators of prognosis are needed to personalise post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments.
We aimed to evaluate early symptom reduction as a predictor of better outcome and examine predictors of early response.
Patients with PTSD (N = 134) received sertraline or prolonged exposure in a randomised trial. Early response was defined as 20% PTSD symptom reduction by session two and good end-state functioning defined as non-clinical levels of PTSD, depression and anxiety.
Early response rates were similar in prolonged exposure and sertraline (40 and 42%), but in sertraline only, early responders were four times more likely to achieve good end-state functioning at post-treatment (Number Needed to Treat = 1.8, 95% CI 1.28–3.00) and final follow-up (Number Needed to Treat = 3.1, 95% CI 1.68–16.71). Better outcome expectations of sertraline also predicted higher likelihood of early response.
Higher expectancy of sertraline coupled with early response may produce a cascade-like effect for optimal conditions for long-term symptom reduction. Therefore, assessing expectations and providing clear treatment rationales may optimise sertraline effects.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
The World Health Organization will publish its 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2018. The ICD-11 will include a refined model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a new diagnosis of complex PTSD (CPTSD). Whereas emerging data supports the validity of these proposals, the discriminant validity of PTSD and CPTSD have yet to be tested amongst a sample of refugees.
Treatment-seeking Syrian refugees (N = 110) living in Lebanon completed an Arabic version of the International Trauma Questionnaire; a measure specifically designed to capture the symptom content of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD.
In total, 62.6% of the sample met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD or CPTSD. More refugees met the criteria for CPTSD (36.1%) than PTSD (25.2%) and no gender differences were observed. Latent class analysis results identified three distinct groups: (1) a PTSD class, (2) a CPTSD class and (3) a low symptom class. Class membership was significantly predicted by levels of functional impairment.
Support for the discriminant validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD was observed for the first time within a sample of refugees. In support of the cross-cultural validity of the ICD-11 proposals, the prevalence of PTSD and CPTSD were similar to those observed in culturally distinct contexts.
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform. The hypothesis was tested using a case study of a set of dizygotic X-chromosome monosomy 53,X sheep twins. Genome-wide SNP data were available from the Illumina platform (11 082 autosomal and 191 X-chromosome SNPs) on 1848 male and 8954 female sheep and available from the AxiomTM platform (11 128 autosomal and 68 X-chromosome SNPs) on 383 female sheep. Genotype allele intensity values, either as their original raw values or transformed to logarithm intensity ratio (LRR), were used to accurately diagnose two dizygotic (i.e. fraternal) twin 53,X sheep, both of which received their single X chromosome from their sire. This is the first reported case of 53,X dizygotic twins in any species. Relative to the X-chromosome SNP genotype mean allele intensity values of normal females, the mean allele intensity value of SNP genotypes on the X chromosome of the two females monosomic for the X chromosome was 7.45 to 12.4 standard deviations less, and were easily detectable using either the AxiomTM or Illumina genotype platform; the next lowest mean allele intensity value of a female was 4.71 or 3.3 standard deviations less than the population mean depending on the platform used. Both 53,X females could also be detected based on the genotype LRR although this was more easily detectable when comparing the mean LRR of the X chromosome of each female to the mean LRR of their respective autosomes. On autopsy, the ovaries of the two sheep were small for their age and evidence of prior ovulation was not appreciated. In both sheep, the density of primordial follicles in the ovarian cortex was lower than normally found in ovine ovaries and primary follicle development was not observed. Mammary gland development was very limited. Results substantiate previous studies in other species that aneuploidy can be readily detected using SNP genotype allele intensity values generally already available, and the approach proposed in the present study was agnostic to genotype platform.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
Genetic improvement in production efficiency traits can also drive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This study used international ‘best-practice’ methodology to quantify the improvements in system-wide CO2 equivalent emissions per unit of genetic progress in the Irish Maternal Replacement (MR) and Terminal (T) beef cattle indexes. Effects of each index trait on system gross emissions (GE) and system emissions intensity (EI) were modelled by estimating effects of trait changes on per-animal feed consumption and associated methane production, per-animal meat production and numbers of animals in the system. Trait responses to index selection were predicted from linear regression of individual bull estimated breeding values for each index trait on their MR or T index value, and the resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate trait-wise responses in GE and EI from index selection. Summed over all trait responses, the MR index was predicted to reduce system GE by 0.810 kg CO2e/breeding cow per year per € index and system EI by 0.009 kg CO2e/kg meat per breeding cow per year per € index. These reductions were mainly driven by improvements in cow survival, reduced mature cow maintenance feed requirements, shorter calving interval and reduced offspring mortality. The T index was predicted to reduce system EI by 0.021 kg CO2e/kg meat per breeding cow per year per € index, driven by increased meat production from improvements in carcass weight, conformation and fat. Implications for incorporating an EI reduction index to the current production indexes and long-term projections for national breeding programs are discussed.