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The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of comorbid opioid use disorders and psychiatric disorders with suicide attempts among veterans seeking pain care.
The cohort (N = 226 444) was selected by identifying pain care initiation from 2012 to 2014 using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data. Data on opioid use disorders (OUD), psychiatric disorders, medical comorbidity, demographics at baseline, and suicide attempts in the year following the initiation of pain care were extracted from VHA databases. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was used to assess departure from additivity of effects.
Adjusted models indicated that both comorbid OUD and depression (RERI = 1.07) and comorbid OUD and AUD (RERI = 1.23) were significantly associated with additive risk of suicide attempt. In adjusted multiplicative interaction models, only comorbid OUD and bipolar disorder was significantly associated with suicide attempts; however, this association was protective (HR = 0.54).
The current findings highlight the importance of addressing opioid use disorders and alcohol use disorders and depression together to mitigate the risk of suicidal behavior.
Tree-ring reconstructions of temperature often target trees at altitudinal or latitudinal tree line where annual growth is broadly expected to be limited by and respond to temperature variability. Based on this principal, regions with sparse tree line would seem to be restricted in their potential to reconstruct past temperatures. In the northeastern United States, there are only two published temperature reconstructions. Previous work in the region reconstructing moisture availability, however, has shown that using a greater diversity of species can improve reconstruction model skill. Here, we use a network of 228 tree-ring records composed of 29 species to test the hypothesis that an increase in species diversity among the pool of predictors improves reconstructions of past temperatures. Chamaecyparis thyoides alone explained 31% of the variability in observed cool-season minimum temperatures, but a multispecies model increased the explained variance to 44%. Liriodendron tulipifera, a species not previously used for temperature reconstructions, explained a similar amount of variance as Chamaecyparis thyoides (12.9% and 20.8%, respectively). Increasing the species diversity of tree proxies has the potential for improving reconstruction of paleotemperatures in regions lacking latitudinal or elevational tree lines provided that long-lived hardwood records can be located.
This paper considers the timing and mechanisms of deforestation in the Western Isles of Scotland, focusing in particular on the landscape around the Calanais stone circles, one of the best preserved late Neolithic/early Bronze Age monumental landscapes in north-west Europe. We present new archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence from a soil and peat sequence at the site of Aird Calanais, which spans the main period of use of the Calanais circles. We then draw on a new synthesis of archaeobotanical and palynological evidence from across the Western Isles and a review of comparable data from the wider North Atlantic zone, before assessing the role of early farming communities in clearing the wooded landscapes of the region. Pollen and radiocarbon dating at the site of Aird Calanais reveal that a layer of birch branches, dating to the late Neolithic (2912–2881 cal bc), was contemporaneous with a decline in woodland at the site, as well as with the major phase of Neolithic activity at the Calanais stone circle complex. However, our synthesis of the pollen and plant macrofossil evidence from across the Western Isles suggests that the picture across these islands was altogether more complex: woodlands declined both before, as well as during, the Neolithic and deciduous woodlands remained sufficiently abundant for Neolithic fuel procurement. Finally, we consider the implications of the results for understanding the interactions between first farmers and woodlands in the wider North Atlantic region.
The Pueblo population of Chaco Canyon during the Bonito Phase (AD 800–1130) employed agricultural strategies and water-management systems to enhance food cultivation in this unpredictable environment. Scepticism concerning the timing and effectiveness of this system, however, remains common. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments and LiDAR imaging, the authors located Bonito Phase canal features at the far west end of the canyon. Additional ED-XRF and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses confirm the diversion of waters from multiple sources during Chaco’s occupation. The extent of this water-management system raises new questions about social organisation and the role of ritual in facilitating responses to environmental unpredictability.
Welcome to our roundtable discussion on the balancing of rights and obligations of states and investors. In the past fifteen years, the number of investor-state disputes has grown exponentially, mainly as a result of arbitration clauses contained in investment treaties. The significant number of publicly available decisions and awards has allowed us to form views—and concerns—about both process and outcomes. Some of the concerns have led to the introduction of changes, not only in treaties but also in underlying investment policies. In some instances, states have issued interpretations of particular provisions. In recent years, multilateral initiatives have developed recommendations on how future investment treaties might be improved.
A combination of better management and genetic selection for good health and fertility would provide a more effective long term solution for economic loss due to diseases and poor fertility. This would also help to address public concerns about the use of medical treatment in milk production. A balance in the genetic improvement of health and fertility together with milk production could be achieved through their inclusion in national genetic selection indices, for which genetic parameters are needed. One of the main objectives of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for various disease and fertility traits in the UK dairy cattle population, using records from a national recording scheme run by Livestock Services UK Ltd. Genetic analysis of traits recorded as present or absent (binary traits; e.g. diseases) requires the use of non-linear threshold models, because linear models require normality assumptions (e.g., Gianola 1982). The other objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for binary disease and fertility traits based on threshold animal models and to compare results with those from linear animal models.
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
The putative Thoka gene, with large effects on fecundity, originated in Icelandic sheep. The gene was introduced to the UK in 1985 through a programme of crossbreeding and established in Cheviot sheep (Russel et al., 1997). Ewes have been retained in the flock as putative Thoka gene carriers if they have lambed in each of the first three years and had at least two sets of twins. Progeny tests on a separate population of ewes have been used on two occasions to identify rams believed to carry the gene. Despite this complex breeding programme, the actual segregation of a gene for fecundity has yet to be unambiguously demonstrated in this flock. The purpose of this study is to use complex segregation analysis to demonstrate the existence of this gene, estimate the size of its effect and frequency of the favourable allele within the population.
Behavioural studies of sheep have shown that poor maternal behaviour by the ewe immediately postparturition can lead to reduced lamb survival and ewe production (O'Connor et al., 1985). Under field conditions, behaviour may be quantified by the maternal behaviour score (MBS) - a six-point scale assessing ewe flight distance when lambs(s) are handled for the first time, within 24 hours of birth (adapted from O'Connor et al., 1985). Greater scores are awarded to ewes remaining closer to their lamb(s). The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the factors affecting MBS in Scottish Blackface ewes; (2) to determine if MBS affects the average weight of lambs reared or the number of lambs dying before weaning; (3) to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for MBS and correlations between MBS and lamb performance.
Fat and muscle reserves are mobilised during winter by breeding hill ewes, living in harsh environments, as they conceive and carry their lambs (Russel et al., 1968). Tissue depletion and repletion were studied in Scottish Blackface ewes through one productive cycle using computed tomography (CT). The aim was to use this nondestructive method to quantify patterns of change in carcass fat, carcass muscle and internal fat in ewes of differing age and reproductive status.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen that may be extremely difficult to eradicate in the presence of a true wildlife reservoir. Our objective was to identify and review relevant literature and provide a succinct summary of current knowledge of risk factors for transmission of infection of cattle. Search strings were developed to identify publications from electronic databases to February 2015. Abstracts of 4255 papers identified were reviewed by three reviewers to determine whether the entire article was likely to contain relevant information. Risk factors could be broadly grouped as follows: animal (including nutrition and genetics), herd (including bTB and testing history), environment, wildlife and social factors. Many risk factors are inter-related and study designs often do not enable differentiation between cause and consequence of infection. Despite differences in study design and location, some risk factors are consistently identified, e.g. herd size, bTB history, presence of infected wildlife, whereas the evidence for others is less consistent and coherent, e.g. nutrition, local cattle movements. We have identified knowledge gaps where further research may result in an improved understanding of bTB transmission dynamics. The application of targeted, multifactorial disease control regimens that address a range of risk factors simultaneously is likely to be a key to effective, evidence-informed control strategies.
The amplification of a seed magnetic field by the hydrodynamic behavior of a disk galaxy is an important and challenging problem. We present our initial work on a numerical simulation of the amplification of such a field to large scales and its subsequent evolution. The computations will be carried out using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic code.
In this paper, we describe improvements to the in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon extraction system at SUERC made since 2004, highlighting the factors that potentially control the reduction of analytical variability. We also present new results on system blanks and of measurements of in situ14C in shielded quartz and a surface quartz sample used at the University of Arizona as an in situ14C standard (PP-4). The SUERC in situ14C extraction system was built in 2001 and is based on a combustion technique following the design of the extraction system at the University of Arizona. Our preliminary results suggest that the continuous running of the extraction system and the monitoring of gas collecting time and of the temperature of the cryogenic traps used in the gas cleaning steps are key to maintaining low and stable system blanks. Our latest average system blank is 2.02 ± 0.23 x 10514C atoms. This is consistent with those recently published by the University of Arizona and ETH in situ14C labs. Measurements of in situ14C concentrations in sample PP-4 yield an average of 3.82 ± 0.23 x 105 atoms g–1 quartz, again consistent with published values.
In reproducing ewes, a periparturient breakdown of immunity is often observed to result in increased fecal egg excretion, making them the main source of infection for their immunologically naive lambs. In this study, we expanded a simulation model previously developed for growing lambs to explore the impact of the genotype (performance and resistance traits) and host nutrition on the performance and parasitism of both growing lambs and reproducing ewes naturally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta. Our model accounted for nutrient-demanding phases, such as gestation and lactation, and included a supplementary module to manage the age structure of the ewe flock. The model was validated by comparison with published data. Because model parameters were unknown or poorly estimated, detailed sensitivity analysis of the model was performed for the sheep mortality and the level of infection, following a preliminary screening step. The parameters with the greatest effect on parasite-related outputs were those driving animal growth and milk yield. Our model enables different parasite-control strategies (host nutrition, breeding for resistance and anthelmintic treatments) to be assessed on the long term in a sheep flock. To optimize in silico exploration, the parameters highlighted by the sensitivity analysis should be refined with real data.
The CuInSe2 and CuSbSe2 ternary compounds and alloys of the (CuSbSe2)1-x·(CuInSe2)x system with the mole fraction of CuInSe2 (x) equal to 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.375, 0.50, 0.625, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.95 were prepared and the phase relations in this system were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the alloys of the CuSbSe2-CuInSe2 system are biphasic at room temperature in the whole range of compositions, and the limits of solubility for CuSbSe2 in CuInSe2 and for CuInSe2 in CuSbSe2 do not exceed 0.001 mole fraction.
Lead halide perovskites have proven their great power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the last few years and attracted more and more attentions. Evaporation is an important method to get high quality perovskite films, especially for surface and interface investigation, which is important for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we present our investigations on growing PbI2 and CH3NH3I films by evaporation, and then CH3NH3PbI3 films by co-evaporation. X-ray photoemisson spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the films. The results showed that CH3NH3I film was not stable in vacuum. Both N and I decreased in vacuum with time elapsing. PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 films are quite stable. The atomic ratio of CH3NH3PbI3 films (C: N: Pb: I =1.29:1.07:1.00:2.94) is very close to the ideal CH3NH3PbI3, which indicates that evaporation is a good method to get high quality perovskite films with accurate atomic ratio.
The incidence of recreational water-associated outbreaks in the United States has significantly increased, driven, at least in part, by outbreaks both caused by Cryptosporidium and associated with treated recreational water venues. Because of the parasite's extreme chlorine tolerance, transmission can occur even in well-maintained treated recreational water venues (e.g. pools) and a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak can evolve into a community-wide outbreak associated with multiple recreational water venues and settings (e.g. childcare facilities). In August 2004 in Auglaize County, Ohio, multiple cryptosporidiosis cases were identified and anecdotally linked to pool A. Within 5 days of the first case being reported, pool A was hyperchlorinated to achieve 99·9% Cryptosporidium inactivition. A case-control study was launched to epidemiologically ascertain the outbreak source 11 days later. A total of 150 confirmed and probable cases were identified; the temporal distribution of illness onset was peaked, indicating a point-source exposure. Cryptosporidiosis was significantly associated with swimming in pool A (matched odds ratio 121·7, 95% confidence interval 27·4–∞) but not with another venue or setting. The findings of this investigation suggest that proactive implementation of control measures, when increased Cryptosporidium transmission is detected but before an outbreak source is epidemiologically ascertained, might prevent a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak from evolving into a community-wide outbreak.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
We present results of modeling and experimental characterization of thermoelectric (TE) materials built on new fabrication principles, involving the coating of three-dimensionally structured quantum well super-lattice substrates with PbTe/PbSe. A new system for wafer-scale electrochemical deposition of such structures was specifically developed and will be described in this paper. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to measure film thickness and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine film material concentration. By adjusting deposition parameters, we were able to build stoichiometric PbSe, PbTe and stacked PbSe/PbTe super-lattice films on planar and pre-structured surfaces. The films were thermoelectrically modelled using COMSOL and then characterized using an infrared Seebeck effect measurement system which measured surface heating of the film while measuring the voltage associated with the temperature gradient. We report advances in the design and fabrication of TE materials which improve cost-effectiveness and TE efficiency.
Thermoelectric CuIn1-xAlxTe2 compounds (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.50) have been synthesized by solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering. The influence of Al substitution on electrical and thermal transport properties has been investigated in the CuInTe2 compounds. It was found that the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is reduced by isovalent replacement of In with Al. Our first principle calculation indicates Al substitution leads to the widen band gap, the reduction in the number of degeneracy of valence band and the effective mass. Furthermore, a large reduction in thermal conductivity is achieved through the enhanced phonon scattering via point defect as well as the nano-sized particles observed between grain boundaries and on the grain surface. In spite of the reduced charge transport properties, an improved figure-of- merit ZT is achieved, reaching 0.8 at 800 K, 33% higher in comparison to the pure CuInTe2 compound.