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The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain is an authoritative series which surveys the history of publishing, bookselling, authorship and reading in Britain. This seventh and final volume surveys the twentieth and twenty-first centuries from a range of perspectives in order to create a comprehensive guide, from growing professionalisation at the beginning of the twentieth century, to the impact of digital technologies at the end. Its multi-authored focus on the material book and its manufacture broadens to a study of the book's authorship and readership, and its production and dissemination via publishing and bookselling. It examines in detail key market sectors over the course of the period, and concludes with a series of essays concentrating on aspects of book history: the book in wartime; class, democracy and value; books and other media; intellectual property and copyright; and imperialism and post-imperialism.
My first studies focused on the pharmacology of memory in rats and then on protein synthesis and memory in mice. What propelled me to human work was a 1971 publication on retrograde amnesia in memory-impaired patients. Retrograde amnesia refers to memory loss for information acquired before the onset of amnesia. The patients in that study had memory loss extending decades into the past, and its severity was similar at all past time periods. This result completely perplexed me. It did not fit what I had come to understand from the animal literature, where retrograde amnesia was typically limited and also temporally graded, affecting recent memory more than remote memory. Indeed, retrograde amnesia in animals was thought to provide evidence for memory consolidation: the idea that memory becomes more fixed and less vulnerable to disruption as time passes after learning.
I had been in graduate school at MIT at the time when the noted amnesic patient H.M. was being studied there. We were all familiar with his story and the neurosurgery that he had undergone to relieve severe epilepsy. So, it was not a big jump for me to begin studying memory and amnesia in humans, initially with psychiatric patients who were prescribed electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. (ECT was known to cause transient memory impairment). What was needed, I thought, was a test of past memory that could sample past time periods equivalently – that is, assess information from different time periods which had originally been learned to the same extent. We ended up with a memory test for the names of television programs that had broadcast for only one season during the past seventeen years. The popularity of the programs was similar across time periods. ECT resulted in temporally graded retrograde amnesia, sparing older memories but impairing memories acquired up to three years before treatment. This work provided the first evidence that memory consolidation in humans can occur across a lengthy time period (a few years) and that consolidation depends on reorganization within long-term memory. This led us to many more studies of retrograde amnesia, remote memory, and to what is referred to as the standard model of consolidation (not my term).
Background: The diagnosis of a sports-related concussion is often dependent on the athlete self-reporting their symptoms. It has been suggested that improving youth athlete knowledge and attitudes toward concussion may increase self-reporting behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine if a novel Concussion-U educational program improves knowledge of and attitudes about concussion among a cohort of elite male Bantam and Midget AAA hockey players. Methods: Fifty-seven male Bantam and Midget AAA-level hockey players (mean age=14.52±1.13 years) were recruited from the local community. Each participant completed a modified version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey–Student Version immediately before and after a Concussion-U educational presentation. Follow-up sessions were arranged 4 to 6 months after the presentation, and assessed retention of knowledge and attitude changes. Results: Forty-three players completed all three surveys. Concussion knowledge and attitude scores significantly (p<0.01) increased from pre- to post-presentation by 12.79 and 8.41%, respectively. At long-term follow-up, knowledge levels remained significantly (p<0.01) higher than baseline by 8.49%. Mean attitude scores were also increased at follow-up; however, this increase was not statistically significant. Conclusions: A Concussion-U educational program led to an immediate improvement in concussion knowledge and attitudes among elite male Bantam and Midget AAA hockey players. Increased knowledge was maintained at long-term follow-up, but improved attitude was not. Future studies should investigate whether similar educational programs influence symptom reporting and concussion incidence. In addition, they should focus on how to maintain improved concussion attitudes.
High-precision analysis using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed upon known-age Holocene and modern, pre-bomb coral samples to generate a marine reservoir age correction value (ΔR) for the Houtman-Abrolhos Archipelago (28.7°S, 113.8°E) off the Western Australian coast. The mean ΔR value calculated for the Abrolhos Islands, 54 ± 30 yr (1 σ) agrees well with regional ΔR values for Leeuwin Current source waters (N-NW Australia-Java) of 60 ± 38 yr. The Abrolhos Islands show little variation with ΔR values of the northwestern and north Australian coast, underlining the dominance of the more equilibrated western Pacific-derived waters of the Leeuwin Current over local upwelling. The Abrolhos Islands ΔR values have remained stable over the last 2896 cal yr BP, being also attributed to the Leeuwin Current and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal during this period. Expected future trends will be a strengthening of the teleconnection of the Abrolhos Islands to the climatic patterns of the equatorial Pacific via enhanced ENSO and global warming activity strengthening the Leeuwin Current. The possible effect upon the trend of future ΔR values may be to maintain similar values and an increase in stability. However, warming trends of global climate change may cause increasing dissimilarity of ΔR values due to the effects of increasing heat stress upon lower-latitude coral communities.
Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case–control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
The aims of this study were to define the basic epidemiology of serologically confirmed acute Q fever in patients tested via the Townsville Hospital laboratory from 2000 to 2010 and to determine the impact of geographical location and seasonality on the incidence of acute cases in the Townsville region. Seven Statistical Local Areas (SLA) were identified as having an incidence higher than the average Queensland incidence over the study period. The SLA with the highest incidence was Woodstock-Ross with 24·9 cases/100 000. A clear seasonal peak was found, with the greatest number of cases observed in May, 3 months following the peak in rainfall in February. We hypothesize that an increase in wildlife numbers and drier conditions seen immediately following the wet season is the reason for the seasonal peak of human acute Q fever cases in Townsville.