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Little is known about the neural substrates of suicide risk in mood disorders. Improving the identification of biomarkers of suicide risk, as indicated by a history of suicide-related behavior (SB), could lead to more targeted treatments to reduce risk.
Participants were 18 young adults with a mood disorder with a history of SB (as indicated by endorsing a past suicide attempt), 60 with a mood disorder with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) but not SB, 52 with a mood disorder with no history of SI or SB (MD), and 82 healthy comparison participants (HC). Resting-state functional connectivity within and between intrinsic neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), salience and emotion network (SEN), and default mode network (DMN), was compared between groups.
Several fronto-parietal regions (k > 57, p < 0.005) were identified in which individuals with SB demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity within (in the CCN) and across networks (CCN-SEN and CCN-DMN). Connectivity with some of these same regions also distinguished the SB group when participants were re-scanned after 1–4 months. Extracted data defined SB group membership with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (79–88%).
These results suggest that individuals with a history of SB in the context of mood disorders may show reliably distinct patterns of intrinsic network connectivity, even when compared to those with mood disorders without SB. Resting-state fMRI is a promising tool for identifying subtypes of patients with mood disorders who may be at risk for suicidal behavior.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
This volume has achieved a large coverage of the experimentally well-studied areas of the temperate and subtropical coasts of the world (see Figure 1.1) – venturing into the tropics in some regions (Chapter 14, South-East Asia) and including mangroves (Chapter 17). Coral reef systems have not been considered. Much of the emphasis has been on rocky habitats as this is where the majority of experimental work on interactions has been done (but see Chapter 6). As well as reviewing regions where there has been a long history of experimental research (e.g., Chapters 2–4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16), areas of emerging experimental research in the last twenty-five years (e.g., Chapter 8, western Mediterranean; Chapter 12, south-east Pacific) and understudied regions (e.g., Chapter 7, Argentina; Chapter 14, South-East Asia) have also been included, allowing more comprehensive insights into the processes important for shaping these communities. In this short synthesis chapter, we first consider the main processes determining patterns covered by the previous chapters. We then consider major human impacts in these regions. Finally, we identify gaps in knowledge and make some suggestions for the way forward. We make the case for combining phylogeographic studies with macro-ecology and biogeography, coupled with well-designed hypothesis testing experiments, to better understand processes generating patterns on micro-evolutionary (hundreds to thousands of years) and ecological (up to hundreds of years) time scales.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Replicate radiocarbon (14C) measurements of organic and inorganic control samples, with known Fraction Modern values in the range Fm = 0–1.5 and mass range 6 μg–2 mg carbon, are used to determine both the mass and radiocarbon content of the blank carbon introduced during sample processing and measurement in our laboratory. These data are used to model, separately for organic and inorganic samples, the blank contribution and subsequently “blank correct” measured unknowns in the mass range 25–100 μg. Data, formulas, and an assessment of the precision and accuracy of the blank correction are presented.
Repetitions of the round robin test on powder diffractometer sensitivity and round robin test of intensity measurements, using two almost identical groups of participants, enabled a comparison to be made of results obtained in different tests. Two forms of corundum test samples were used: (i) sintered plates in tests A8 and A9, and (ii) powder samples in test Bl . A rough comparison of the influence of different methods of specimen preparation from the powder material in different laboratories in test Bl is thus possible with respect to the (almost) uniform sintered plates used in tests A8 and A9. The parameters under investigation were the line positions (and/or inter-planar d-spacing) and intensities of eleven reflections occurring at the 20 angles ranging from 25° to 136° for Cu Kα-radiation
Six computer synthesized data sets, each representing a mixture, and one physical mixture were prepared and widely distributed in order to study the various search/match methods and factors which affect their success. A total of 67 returns were received representing eight countries and three search methods. The participants were primarily from industrial laboratories. The average score exceeded 90%. The Hanawalt search method yielded the best overall score. Use of the Frequently Encountered Phases subfile decreased the search time by about 40% and marginally increased the success rate. For the physical mixture the Δd/d and ΔI/I values were measured to about 2/1000 and 40% respectively. Use of an internal standard improved the d-values by a factor of 2 and resulted in better search/match performance.
In planning for PDF-3, the International Centre for Diffraction Data's full pattern database of raw diffraction data, it is evident that a standard format for storage and exchange of diffraction data is necessary. An evaluation of the JCAMP-DX protocol by a task group* of the International Centre for Diffraction Data has resulted in a set of format cooes specific to X-ray diffraction. The proposed structure of the data is divided into four parts: the minimal component set required by the JCAMP-DX definition (name, data, owner, sample identification, data type, etc.), a minimum item set required to define the X-ray diffraction data, an open selection of requested but not required information on the sample, its preparation and the instrument, and finally the data itself in one of several specified formats. All information stored in JCAMP-DX format is in ASCII characters. Therefore, these data are printable, easily read by the user and compatible with almost any computer or media storage device. Codes defining the information are primarily in shortened, but readable, English. The task group is completing the work on this project and will be presenting its proposals to JCAMP.
During the course of the past ten years the International Centre for Diffraction Data has sponsored a number of “Round Robin” tests to evaluate the quality of experimental X-ray diffraction data [1-5]. The latest of this series, called the Instrument Parameter Round Robin, was designed to evaluate, among other things, relative angularly-dependent sensitivity differences between diffractometers. Previous experiments have indicated that even perfectly aligned diffractometers of the same generic type, do not necessarily give the same set of relative intensities. One objective of the round robin was to quantify the magnitude of the experimental differences between data sets, and to demonstrate a means for external calibration of diffractometers, so that digitized diffraction intensity data obtained from different instruments could be directly compared.
A set of experimentally obtained “d” values is subject to a variety of random and systematic errors, some of which are inherent to a given diffractometer configuration and some of which may result from incorrect alignment of the diffractometer or technique in establishing peak positions and subsequent calculation of “d” values. In a previous paper (1) we have discussed the problems involved in the identification and control of errors in the computer controlled diffractometer and in that paper we indicated that it is useful to differentiate between different types of two-theta values. Firstly the Theoretical 20 values are those values which are dependant only on the size and distribution of atoms in the unit cell of the phase. The Practical 20 values on the other hand result when aberrations inherent in a given diffractometer geometry are convoluted with the Theoretical 20 values. In terms of their typical magnitudes the most important of these aberrations in decreasing order are: Specimen Displacement, Axial Divergence, Flat Specimen and Transparency Errors. Other inherent errors include refraction and the effects of focal line and receiving slit widths etc., but these latter effects are generally considered small. At the second level, Experimental 20 values also depend on misalignment errors. The third level errors accrue in the conversion of the experimental 20 value to “d” spacing. These errors may arise simply from round-off errors or from more fundamental reasons arising from the polychromatic nature of the source and uncertainties in the wavelength of the diffracted radiation.
A file of digitized diffraction traces for clay minerals has been developed as a test for the usefulness of such traces in the analysis of clays and clay deposits. The kaolin, smectite, mica clay and chlorite groups are represented by patterns of the most common mineral species in the small crystallite size which is typical of their natural occurrences. Patterns are included for the oriented sample and for glycolated and heated samples when appropriate. This database may form a nucleus for an extensive collection of clay mineral traces in the same manner as the early Powder Diffraction File did for the modern PDE.
XRF can be a powerful tool for quantitative elemental analysis-it can also be a big headache. The problem is, of course, that to perform a proper quantitative analysis one needs to first develop a good matrix correction model to convert the measured line intensities to concentrations. For empirical models, aside from the inherent difficulties in optimizing a set of interelement correction coefficients, the commercially available computer controlled spectrometers have in the past either provided rather poor regression analysis programs with their software or none at all. The reason for this has been the rather limited core size of the online computer and the lack of fast efficient mass storage facilities such as floppy disks.
At the present stage of development of mathematical correction procedures, the so-called empirical methods are well established and reasonably reliable, require relatively small computers for their application, but require large numbers of calibration standards for the determination of the (alpha) correction constants. On the other hand, the so-called fundamental methods are less well proven and require more sophisticated computing facilities. One possible means of achieving the advantages of both techniques is to use a large computer to calculate the alpha coefficients from fundamental constants, then to use a small online computer for their application in an "empirical type" algorithm. de Jongh has proposed such a program called "ALPHAS" for the calculation of interelement correction constants and the present paper elaborates on this approach using as examples data collected in our own laboratory during the past year or so.
Computer controlled X-ray spectrometers have been available since the mid 1950's and there are many hundreds of these systems in use today. The degree of sophistication of these machines has increased gradually over the past several years, but in all cases the flexibility of the analytical system is directly relatable to the available computer hardware. In the design of any computer controlled X-ray spectrometer, it is highly desirable to keep the cost of the computer, plus its associated interfaces and software, to within a reasonable fraction of the total cost of the whole system. A figure of perhaps 30% or so is a good figure to aim for in this context. A compromise must, therefore, always be sought between cost and computational power--which generally means flexibility.
We have recently described an automated powder diffractometer, the APD-3500, in which a small (4K x 18 bit) minicomputer is utilized for hardware control and data processing. Among the software programs developed for this system is a “Peak Search“ routine which is designed to record a diffraction pattern with optimum, use of scanning time and to give output directly in J.C.P.D.S. Powder Data File Format. Optimum use of scanning time is achieved by a double-pass System in which a first (rapid) pass is made to establish significant data.
A second routine is a “Line Profile” routine which gives the choice of rapid slewing or slow Step scanning of the goniometer between selected angular ranges. The routine thus allows the controlled stepping of the goniometer between selected angular ranges giving incremental and integral, background corrected counts. An automatic internal and/or external calibration capability makes this particular mode ideal for quantitative analysis.
Instrument specifications as published by manufacturers generally include values for stability of various parameters or components. For an X-ray fluorescence system, a typical example might be the generator high voltage stability (perhaps 0.01%). Parameters of this sort are of course of some use in comparing systems, and they may be (and often are) of great importance to the manufacturer as a criterion of manufacturing quality. It is difficult for the user to know how any single one, or combination of these factors really affect the total system performance as it may relate to his application.
During the past three years we have undertaken the development of a complete X-Ray Powder Diffraction, facility with the goal of fully integrating experimental and analytical procedures. Such an approach potentially offers substantially improved performance over previously existing systems by virtue of its internal self-consistency and it opens the possibility of significantly extending analytic procedures for both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Our work to date has resulted in improved performance and significant extensions in both areas, and today I will report on those advances in the area of qualitative analysis.
The manual X-ray spectrometer, PW-1410, has been upgraded to a level of automatic operation through the addition of a hardwired Angle Mode Programmer, a Motor Controller and by interfacing a dedicated microcomputer. It is the purpose of this communication to describe the system together with data reduction software developed for the microcomputer. This paper will also discuss quantitative analysis techniques using matrix mass absorption coefficients measured with a new absorption cell attachment.