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We quantified hospital-acquired COVID-19 during the early phases of the pandemic, and we evaluated solely temporal determinations of hospital acquisition.
Retrospective observational study during early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, March 1-November 30, 2020. We identified laboratory-detected SARS-CoV-2 from 30 days before admission through discharge. All episodes detected after hospital day 5 were categorized by chart review as community or unlikely hospital-acquired, or possible or probable hospital-acquired.
Two acute-care hospitals in Chicago, IL.
All hospitalized patients including an inpatient rehabilitation unit.
Each hospital implemented infection-control precautions soon after identifying COVID-19 cases, including patient- and staff-cohorting, universal masking, and restricted visitation policies.
Among 2,667 patients with SARS-CoV-2, detection before hospital day six was most common (n=2,612; 98%); days 6-14 uncommon (n=43; 1.6%); and, after day 14, rare (n=16; 0.6%). By chart review, most episodes after day 5 were categorized as community-acquired, usually because SARS-CoV-2 had been detected at a prior healthcare facility (68% of cases on days 6-14; 53% of cases after day 14). Incidence for possible and probable hospital-acquired cases, per 10,000 patient-days, was similar for ICU- and non-ICU patients at Hospitals A (1.2 vs 1.3, difference = 0.1; 95% CI, -2.8 to 3.0) and B (2.8 vs 1.2, difference = 1.6; 95% CI, -0.1 to 4.0).
Most patients were protected by early and sustained application of infection-control precautions, modified to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Using solely temporal criteria to discriminate hospital- vs community-acquisition would have misclassified many “late-onset” SARS-CoV-2 positive episodes.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
Frequent freezing injury greatly influences winter wheat production; thus, effective prevention and a command of agricultural production are vital. The freezing injury monitoring method integrated with ‘3S’ (geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing (RS)) technology has an unparalleled advantage. Using HuanJing (HJ)-1A/1B satellite images of a winter wheat field in Shanxi Province, China plus a field survey, crop types and winter wheat planting area were identified through repeated visual interpretations of image information and spatial analyses conducted in GIS. Six vegetation indices were extracted from processed HJ-1A/1B satellite images to determine whether the winter wheat suffered from freezing injury and its degree of severity and recovery, using change vector analysis (CVA), the freeze injury representative vegetation index and the combination of the two methods, respectively. Accuracy of the freezing damage classification results was verified by determining the impact of freezing damage on yield and quantitative analysis. The CVA and the change of normalized difference vegetation index (ΔNDVI) monitoring results were different so a comprehensive analysis of the combination of CVA and ΔNDVI was performed. The area with serious freezing injury covered 0.9% of the total study area, followed by the area of no freezing injury (3.5%), moderate freezing injury (10.2%) and light freezing injury (85.4%). Of the moderate and serious freezing injury areas, 0.2% did not recover; 1.2% of the no freezing injury and light freezing injury areas showed optimal recovery, 15.6% of the light freezing injury and moderate freezing injury areas showed poor recovery, and the remaining areas exhibited general recovery.
Background: Proteogenomics, the integration of proteomics and RNASeq expands the discovery landscape for candidate expressed gene networks to obtain novel insights into host response in post-infectious hydrocephalus (PIH). We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants with PIH, and case controlled against age-matched infants with non-postinfectious hydrocephalus (NPIH) to probe the molecular mechanisms of PIH, leveraging molecular identification of bacterial and viral pathogens. Methods: Ventricular CSF samples of 100 infants ≤ 3 months of age with PIH (n=64) and NPIH (n=36) were analyzed with proteomics and RNASeq. 16S rRNA/DNA sequencing and virome capture identified Paenibacillus spp. and cytomegalovirus as dominant pathogenetic bacteria implicated in our PIH cohort. Proteogenomics assessed differential expression, gene set enrichment and activated gene pathways. Results: Of 616 proteins and 11,114 genes, there was enrichment for the immune system, cell-cell junction signaling and response to oxidative stress. Proteogenomics yielded 33 functionally and genetically associated gene sets related to neutrophil activation, platelet activation, and cytokines (interleukins and interferon) signaling. Conclusions: We identified PIH patients with severe disease at time of hydrocephalus surgery, to have differential expression of proteins/genes involved in neuroinflammation, ependymal barrier integrity and reaction to oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to examine those proteins/genes as biomarkers for PIH.
To investigate the influences of dietary riboflavin (RF) addition on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, eight rumen cannulated Holstein bulls were randomly allocated into four treatments in a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Daily addition level of RF for each bull in control, low RF, medium RF and high RF was 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg, respectively. Increasing the addition level of RF, DM intake was not affected, average daily gain tended to be increased linearly and feed conversion ratio decreased linearly. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) increased linearly. Rumen pH decreased quadratically, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased quadratically. Acetate molar percentage and acetate:propionate ratio increased linearly, but propionate molar percentage and ammonia-N content decreased linearly. Rumen effective degradability of DM increased linearly, NDF increased quadratically but CP was unaltered. Activity of cellulase and populations of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant cellulolytic bacteria, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased linearly. Linear increase was observed for urinary total purine derivatives excretion. The data suggested that dietary RF addition was essential for rumen microbial growth, and no further increase in performance and rumen total VFA concentration was observed when increasing RF level from 600 to 900 mg/d in dairy bulls.
The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and distribution of gene mutations that are related to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF)-resistance in the strains of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in Beijing, China. In this retrospective study, the genotypes of 173 MDR-TB strains were analysed by spoligotyping. The katG, inhA genes and the promoter region of inhA, in which genetic mutations confer INH resistance; and the rpoB gene, in which genetic mutations confer RIF resistance, were sequenced. The percentage of resistance-associated nucleotide alterations among the strains of different genotypes was also analysed. In total, 90.8% (157/173) of the MDR strains belonged to the Beijing genotype. Population characteristics were not significantly different among the strains of different genotypes. In total, 50.3% (87/173) strains had mutations at codon S315T of katG; 16.8% (29/173) of strains had mutations in the inhA promoter region; of them, 5.5% (15/173) had point mutations at −15 base (C→T) of the inhA promoter region. In total, 86.7% (150/173) strains had mutations at rpoB gene; of them, 40% (69/173) strains had mutations at codon S531L of rpoB. The frequency of mutations was not significantly higher in Beijing genotypic MDR strains than in non-Beijing genotypes. Beijing genotypic MDR-TB strains were spreading in Beijing and present a major challenge to TB control in this region. A high prevalence of katG Ser315Thr, inhA promoter region (−15C→T) and rpoB (S531L) mutations was observed. Molecular diagnostics based on gene mutations was a useful method for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Beijing, China.
The aim of the present study was to identify reports of the prevalence of tinnitus in China and to present these findings in a review format.
This study assessed and collated published prevalence estimates of tinnitus and tinnitus severity, creating a narrative synthesis of the data from publications identified from a combination of Chinese and English language databases.
A total of 23 studies were included. Tinnitus prevalence ranged from 4.3 per cent to 51.33 per cent but varied with age and gender. The highest increase in prevalence from previous decade in age occurs during the fifth and sixth decades, and the highest prevalence was in the seventh decade at 32.47 per cent. There is also evidence that tinnitus prevalence is related to certain risk factors including comorbid disorders.
The prevalence of tinnitus in mainland China in this study is consistent with global data. With increasing awareness of the prevalence of tinnitus in China, the development of epidemiological standards is a priority.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) play a central role in plant nitrogen (N) metabolism. In order to study the effect of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) on N metabolism, field experiments were carried out to evaluate GS and GOGAT activity, GS expression and grain protein content (GPC) in susceptible (Xi'nong 979) and resistant (Zhengmai 103) wheat cultivars under three treatments. The three treatments were no inoculation (CK), inoculated once with Bgt (MP) and inoculated nine times with Bgt (HP). For Xi'nong 979, the activities of GS and GOGAT in grains as well as GS activity in flag leaves increased at 10–15 days after anthesis (DAA), and decreased significantly at 15 or 20–30 DAA in HP and MP. However, GS activity in grains decreased from 20 DAA, which was later than that of flag leaves (15 DAA). At the same time, GS expression in grains was up-regulated at early stage, with GS1 at 10 DAA and GS2 at 15 DAA, followed by a continuous down-regulation. This result indicated that GS and GOGAT activity as well as GS expression were inhibited by powdery mildew, indicating that N metabolism in grains was inhibited at 20–30 DAA. The current study also found out that the yield of the susceptible cultivar decreased significantly, while its GPC increased obviously in HP. It was shown that the increase of GPC was not due to the enhancement of N metabolism, but due to the passive increase caused by yield reduction.
With the increase of access point (AP) density and the exponential growth of mobile devices supported by ultra dense networks (UDNs), overlapped user-centric (UC) clustering is becoming a promising design principle for guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) required by each UE. However, the overlapped UC clustering has to be jointly designed with resource allocation in UDNs. In this context, both the traffic-load balancing and the limited availability of orthogonal resource blocks (RBs) are carefully considered in UDNs. To tackle these challenges, we formulate a joint overlapped UC clustering and resource allocation problem with the goal of maximizing the system’s spectral efficiency (SE). With the aid of the graph-theoretical framework, the problem is decoupled into two independent subproblems, and a distributed overlapped UC clustering solution as well as a graph-based resource allocation scheme were proposed. Our numerical results quantify the superior performance of the proposed framework in terms of both its per area aggregated user rate (PAAR) and user rate.
Ultra-dense cloud radio access network (UDCRAN) architecture, which integrates the capability of cloud computing and edge computing with the massively deployed radio access points, is a promising solution for the fifth-generation and beyond mobile communications. In order to accommodate the anticipated explosive growth of data traffic, fronthauling technology becomes a challenge technical issue in the fifth-generation and beyond UDCRANs. Moreover, the schemes related to interference management and resource management need to be reconsidered. In this chapter, we will provide a comprehensive review of the current research progress on fronthauling technology. Moreover, we will compare the advantages of various candidate fronthaul schemes.
The wireless edge caching is considered as a promising technique to cope with rapid increase in mobile traffic demand. The fundamental idea of edge caching is to offload the data traffic to local cache memories by dealing with content requests with the pre-fetched contents on network edge nodes. The wireless edge caching consists of two main phases: content placement and content delivery. Since the strategies for these two phases are highly dependent on which devices are capable of caching in the network, the characteristics and types of achievable caching gains appear to vary with the location of cached data. The cached data at the transmitter side can be utilized to reduce the traffic load on backhaul and the latency, while the cached data at the receiver side can be utilized to improve the network resource efficiency and the quality of experience (QoE) of the end-users. This chapter introduces the state-of-the-art wireless edge caching techniques for transmitters and receivers of ultra dense networks and offers a design guideline on reaping the promising gain of wireless edge caching.
Ultra dense networks with directional antennas, like millimetre wave (mmWave) networks, have some promising features about secure communications. This chapter explores the potential of physical layer security in mmWave ultra dense networks. Specifically, we mainly introduced the impact of mmWave channel characteristics, random blockages, and antenna gains on the secrecy performance. Our results reveal that mmWave frequency to high mmWave frequency is demanded to obtain a higher secrecy rate. In addition, new antenna pattern models are needed to well characterize the effective antenna gain for a random interferer seen by the typical receiver when the number of mmWave antennas grows large.
To take full advantage of the ultra-dense architecture and efficiently serve the traffic with spatiotemporal fluctuation, the transmission mechanisms should be redesigned under the constraints of backhaul and energy consumption. In this chapter, we summarize and classify the spatiotemporal arrival properties of different traffic in ultra-dense networks, and optimize several promising technologies to match the traffic. A new approach based on combining stochastic geometry and queueing theory is proposed to provide a useful guidance for the design of ultra-dense networks.
Full duplex ultra-dense network (FDUDN) is envisioned as a promising network paradigm for spectrum efficiency enhancement. This chapter presents a power management scheme, which maximizes the total capacity of FDUDN, under given Quality-of-Service (QoS) and cross-tier interference constraints. The inter-cell power control is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem and the variable substitution is used to transform it into a convex one. Furthermore, the problem is solved through a low-complexity heuristic scheme, which utilizes the water-filling theorem in inter-cell power allocation. Simulation demonstrates the enhancement effect of the proposed scheme in terms of the capacity and the power efficiency.
This chapter investigates the application non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in heterogeneous ultra-dense networks (HUDNs). Particularly, we propose a unified NOMA framework first. Then the applications of the proposed unified NOMA framework in HUDNs will be discussed. With the fact that small cells are densely deployed and the non-orthogonality of resource sharing, the system suffers severe interference. In this chapter, we identify the key challenges in the unified NOMA enabled HUDNs, especially for user association and resource allocation. In addition, we carry out the related case studies for the proposed unified NOMA enabled HUDNs including the user association based on matching theory and resource allocation based on optimization techniques. Furthermore, some critical insights will be provided for the design of NOMA enabled HUDNs, which can promote network access capacity in the next generation of communication systems.